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Changes from the 8th Edition

From the Instructors Manual, with additional notes from the authors

Overview

Launching Your Study (Chapter 1)

From the Instructors Manual:

The content of this chapter remains much the same as the previous edition. Some edits have been made for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes: 

  • A rewritten section on “Messages Eliciting a Response” as a necessary feature in a definition of communication. Clarified the rationale and provided an example. 
  • The chapter discusses the relationship of Em, Andrew, and Glenn as co-authors and explains how the reader can know to which author the personal references (I, me, mine) refer. 
  • Deleted four references from the “Second Look” feature that were incidental to the content of the chapter.

Talk About Theory (Chapter 2)

From the Instructors Manual:

In this edition, Griffin has changed the example text to an ad from the 2013 Superbowl. As a result, the material in this chapter has been modified with Glenn and Marty responding to a different ad. At the conclusion of the chapter, Griffin discusses the importance of metatheoretical perspectives (replacing the discussion of research methods from the previous edition). Other changes include new citations in the Second Look feature.

Authors' notes:

  • Replaced Peyton Mannning MasterCard ad description with Budweiser Clydesdale Super Bowl commercial. 
  • New Glenn and Marty analyses of Clydesdale ad. 
  • Glenn’s and Marty’s analyses used to illustrate the differences of epistemology, ontology, axiology, and purpose of theorizing.
  • Figure 2-1, Classification of Communication Theories According to Objective/Interpretive Worldview altered to reflect new theory and assignment.

Weighing the Words (Chapter 3)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited slightly for clarity. Astute readers will notice that, for both empirical and humanistic research, the ordering of the first two criteria has been reversed. Otherwise, the content is unaltered.

Authors' notes: 

  • Dropped the opening example from “Oklahoma” that illustrated tension between objective and interpretive scholars. Replaced it with an example of political tension between Republicans and Democrats. 
  • Changed the order of appearance of theory criteria in both objective and interpretive sections to feature prediction (or values clarification) prior to explanation (or new understanding of people). 
  • Rewrote the portion in “Explanation of the Data” that discussed interpersonal deception theory.  Replaced the theory example with discussion of communication apprehension. 
  • Revised the paragraph under “Surveys” that discusses the relationship between correlation and causality. 
  • Under the section on “Ethnography,” the example from Dances With Wolves was dropped in favor of an example from the recently deceased baseball legend, Stan Musial. 
  • Question #4 under “Questions to Sharpen Your Focus” was replaced with a new question. 

Mapping the Territory (Chapter 4)

From the Instructors Manual:

The core content of this chapter remains essentially the same as the previous edition’s treatment. The interweaving of friendship research as an illustration of how researchers from various traditions might tackle a given content area is the same as the 8th edition. The material has been edited for clarity.

Authors' notes:

  • The discussion of the ethical tradition now clarifies its relationship to interpretive and objective scholarship. A course in communication and character at Texas Christian University serves as an additional example.

 

Interpersonal Communication: Interpersonal Messages

Symbolic Interactionism (Chapter 5)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited for clarity and precision. In previous editions, Em has used material drawn from the film, “Nell” which has been dropped in this edition. The theoretical material remains the same along with new examples throughout.

Authors' notes: 

  • Dropped Nell as a vehicle to illustrate the theory. Replaced the film with a series of examples more contemporary and specific to the feature of the theory under discussion. 
  • In “Thinking” section, used the effect of sign language for the congenitally deaf to Illustrate symbolic communication as a necessary condition for the development of clear thinking. 
  • In “Self” section, illustrated the concept of praise creating a positive self- image (“me”) by drawing on the early development of musical geniuses. 
  • In “Society” section, discussed the role of television and social media in shaping our generalized other. 
  • In “Society” section, added new application log entry describing how the Army’s basic training can radically change a soldier’s generalized other. 
  • In “Sampler of Applied Symbolic Interaction” section, likened the social isolation of the schoolboy in “Cipher in the Snow” to that experienced by the shooter in the Sandy Hook grade school massacre.

 

Coordinated Management of Meaning (CCM) (Chapter 6)

From the Instructors Manual:

Once again, Griffin has redirected the chapter to make CMM more clear and accessible. This time, guided by the late Barnett Peace’s wife Kim, he focuses the discussion on four claims. In doing so, he highlights the more central concepts of the theory and has eliminated tertiary segments which may become points of confusion. Accordingly, he has also retooled the critique section, offering an evaluation of CMM’s performance. This chapter reads substantially different than the treatment in the 8th edition although the base information is consistent.

Expectancy Violations Theory (Chapter 7)

From the Instructors Manual:

The content of this chapter, which has been edited for clarity and precision, is unchanged from the previous edition.

Authors' notes:

  • In “Questions to Sharpen Your Focus” section, students are challenged to use the revised theory to explain why it now correctly predicts Em’s reactions to four student requests.
  • In “Second Look” bibliography, cited a study of teacher reaction to students’ email requests to meet outside of class.

Interpersonal Communication: Relationship Development

Social Penetration Theory (Chapter 8)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter was lightly edited for clarity. Additionally, the cartoon from the 8th edition has been replaced by a new cartoon illustrating relational outcomes.

Authors' notes: 

  • The opening example has been changed to acknowledge that many freshmen typically meet through Facebook before they come to college. 
  • The section on social exchange theory has been revised with an eye toward clarifying the theory’s relationship with social penetration theory. The edits also help clarify the logic of how forecasted costs and benefits predict relational satisfaction and stability. 
  • Two “Second Look” citations have been added that address the theory’s applicability to intercultural communication contexts.

Uncertainty Reduction Theory (Chapter 9)

From the Instructors Manual:

Previously, this chapter included a segment on Gudykunst’s Anxiety-Uncertainty Management Theory. That section has been removed, but a full treatment of AUM is available in the theory archives on afirstlook.com. This chapter has been edited for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes:

  • The section on anxiety/uncertainty management theory has been replaced with an in-depth section on the relational turbulence model. The relational turbulence model addresses how close relational partners (typically romantic partners) experience negative emotions arising from uncertainty about their relationship. It’s an area of cutting-edge research in the uncertainty reduction theory tradition. 
  • A fourth uncertainty reduction strategy now appears alongside the classic three (passive, active, interactive): the extractive strategy. This strategy addresses how people get information about others using the Internet. 
  • The transition in the middle of the chapter now emphasizes the unity of the two major portions of the theory (the theorems/axioms and the message plans).
  • The “Second Look” bibliography is almost entirely new, with an emphasis on recent research.

Social Information Processing Theory (Chapter 10)

From the Instructors Manual:

The material in this chapter has been heavily edited for clarity and precision. While there is little “new content”, the presentation of this chapter has been refined. Additionally, Griffin includes a new discussion of the hyperpersonal perspective and has revised the critique to reflect some of Walther’s current views regarding his own theory.

Authors' notes: 

  • Throughout the chapter, examples have been reworked to match recent research using the theory and be more accessible to the student. For example, the difference between verbal and nonverbal cues appeals to recent Nielsen statistics about teenage text messaging. 
  • The chapter in the previous edition began with an anecdote about Em’s skepticism about e-mail in 1992. The revised chapter begins by referencing the hit 2010 movie The Social Network
  • The chapter uses an ongoing example of a Facebook friendship to illustrate key components of the theory. 
  • The section “Hyperpersonal Perspective: Closer Through CMC Than in Person” uses online dating as an example throughout. 
  • The chapter contains a new student application log that highlights how people interpret e-mail messages in their close relationships. 
  • The critique section has been revised to account for recent research demonstrating support for the hyperpersonal perspective. The concluding quotation emphasizes Walther’s optimism about CMC (rather than an outdated reference to “The Information Superhighway”). 
  • The “Second Look” bibliography contains several contemporary sources, including a reading on CMC and interethnic conflict.

Interpersonal Communication: Relationship Maintenance

Relational Dialectics (Chapter 11)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter is virtually unchanged from the 8th edition with only very minor grammatical shifts.

Authors' notes: 

  • The chapter more strongly indicates that the three core dialectics are not a complete list of dialectical tensions experienced in relationships. 
  • The critique section addresses how the theory stacks up against all six criteria of interpretive research (the criterion “qualitative research” was omitted in the 8th edition). 
  • A “Second Look” reference to comparisons among dialectical theories has been updated to a more recent source.

Communication Privacy Management Theory (Chapter 12)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited for clarity and readability. The content has not been substantially altered. It is worth noting that in this edition, Griffin and his coauthors group the theory’s main premises into three broad categories and this organizational change might help students see how the five principles are interrelated.

Authors' notes: 

  • A new "Conversations" video has been filmed for this edition. See Glenn's interview with Sandra Petronio here at afirstlook.com or on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ay7ZJQubKA4.  
  • Describes Petronio’s conceptualization of the theory as dealing with privacy ownership, control, and turbulence.
  • New discussion of a study of Paige Toller and Chad McBride on how parents manage private information with their children about death in the family.
  • New paragraph on the timing of synchronizing privacy rules with others. Should people do it before sharing private information or afterwards?
  • Refers to a new speedboat metaphor that Petronio uses to explain the concept of “turbulence.”
  • New paragraph on revealing private information by mistake on Facebook.
  • New personal application log on a student’s bad experience with the transgression of a privacy boundary.
  • New “second look” citation for the current state of the art. 

 

The Interactional View (Chapter 13)

From the Instructors Manual:

This material has been edited for clarity and precision. Griffin also places this theory within the socio-cultural tradition (the graphic on the first page) alongside the cybernetics tradition in a nod to the theory’s underlying assumption that a family culture might reflect macrocultural principles and norms. The other major change involves the removal of RD Laing’s poem, "Knots” previously used to illustrate punctuation. Instead, in keeping with the writings in the original theory, Griffin describes the withdrawal-nag cycle.

Authors' notes:

  • In the “Family as a System” section, contrasts systems approaches to communication with one-way transmission model or a psychotherapeutic approach. 
  • In the introduction to “Axioms of Interpersonal Communication” section , stresses the tentative nature of the axioms and the impact they had on the field of communication. 
  • In “Questions to Sharpen Your Focus” section, students are challenged to figure out the apparent contradiction of designating the theory as a systems theory yet one that is highly interpretive.
  • In “Second Look” feature, added a recent analysis of the Palo Alto group. 

Interpersonal Communication: Influence

Social Judgment Theory (Chapter 14)

From the Instructors Manual:

Griffin’s treatment of social judgment theory has been edited for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes: 

  • Latitudes of acceptance, rejection, and noncommitment are compared to congressional votes of yes, no, and abstain. The importance of identifying these latitudes and ego-involvement is illustrated from the 2012 film, Lincoln. 
  • Trimmed a paragraph from description of the alcohol consumption study at Michigan State University. 
  • In “Second Look” feature, added a primary source by Muzafer Sherif.

Elaboration Likelihood Model (Chapter 15)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter remains essentially the same. The critique has been edited for clarity.

Authors' notes:

  • The critique of the theory is revised. 
  • In “Second Look” feature, replaced the citation for Major Developments in the History of Persuasion Theory with a new 2012 citation.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Chapter 16)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited for clarity and precision. Most of the edits are in the revisions/ expansion section near the chapter’s close.

Authors' notes: 

  • Information on the presence of smoking in movies has been brought up to date. 
  • The section “Three State of the Art Revisions” has been largely rewritten. The edits more clearly differentiate among the revisions and use the example of President Obama’s struggle with smoking to illustrate those differences. 
  • “Second Look” resources have been updated, including reference to a 2009 communication study on selective exposure.

Group and Public Communication: Group Communication

Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making (Chapter 17)

From the Instructors Manual:

Throughout the chapter, edits have been made for clarity and precision, but few substantial changes to the content.

Authors' notes: 

  • Relocated misplaced application log and Function-Oriented Interaction Coding System (FOICS) Checklist figure to facilitate understanding.
  • In “Second Look” feature, added citation critiquing assumption that four functions or any other communication produces a better quality solution.

Symbolic Convergence Theory (Chapter 18)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been lightly edited for clarity, but the content is the same as in the 8th edition.

Authors' notes: 

  • In “Second Look” feature, added two new citations.  The first is a late primary source, in which Bormann describes how fantasy themes in small groups became classic rhetorical visions in the United States. The second is the report of conflicting fantasy themes in a small community-based group.

Group and Public Communication: Organizational Communication

Cultural Approach to Organizations (Chapter 19)

From the Instructors Manual:

The material has been edited for clarity and precision but otherwise remains the same. Examples now throughout the chapter feature the television show, Mad Men. In the graphic at the start of the chapter, Griffin has added the Semiotic tradition reflecting the importance of symbols in creating culture.

Authors' notes:

  • Added extended example from the television series Mad Men to demonstrate how a metaphor can reveal organizational culture. 
  • Expanded “Critique” section in two ways. First, suggested how a thick description of an organization could save money and hassle by using it to provide a realistic job preview in the employee recruitment process. Second, presented Kuper’s claim that Geertz’ interpretive approach offers no way to validate the ethnographer’s thick description and Geertz’ response that “natives” verify the researcher’s conclusions.
  • Updated “Second Look” feature with 2013 article on sports ethnography and a chapter-long history and critique of Geertz’ ethnography. 

Communicative Constitution of Organizations (Chapter 20)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter is new to the 9th edition.

Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations (Chapter 21)

From the Instructors Manual:

This material has been edited for clarity and precision. In the 8th edition, Griffin used extended examples from Erin Brockovich which have been removed in this treatment. Additionally, previous edition integrated material drawn from Cornel West’s Prophetic Pragmatism which is no longer included in this chapter. The full-page graphic “don’t box me in” has also been eliminated. Last, Griffin has included the phenomenological tradition at the graphic to start the chapter. Understanding the experiences within an organization means understanding each stakeholder’s lived experience.

Authors' notes: 

  • New summary introduction in place of Erin Brockovich film. 
  • Stakeholder governance clarified. 
  • Extensive elaboration of Politically Attentive Relational Constructivism (PARC) 
  • Application of the theory through Deetz’ work with the International Atomic Energy Agency to prevent nuclear plant meltdown 
  • Updated “Second Look” feature with articles comparing PARC with CCO and CMM, other constructionist theories featured in the text.

Group and Public Communication: Public Rhetoric

The Rhetoric (Chapter 22)

From the Instructors Manual:

Griffin makes subtle changes to this chapter (i.e. updating examples). The other two changes involve graphics. In the opening graphic, Griffin repositions Rhetoric squarely in the middle between interpretive and empirical theories. He also has inserted a new cartoon.

Authors' notes: 

  • Updated examples of forensic, epideictic, and deliberative speaking.

Dramatism (Chapter 23)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter edited and updated for clarity and precision. The contents remain unchanged though they have been reworked. Notably, the discussion of identification which formerly was the lead of the chapter now is the last component discussed.

Authors' notes: 

  • The theory is described as a way to discern the motivation behind the speaker’s or writer’s message. Bill Clinton’s speech at the 2012 Democratic National Convention is used as an example. 
  • The order of the first four sections is now (1) an expanded presentation of the dramatistic pentad, (2) a new section on language as the genesis of guilt, (3) the guilt redemption cycle, and (4) identification as the necessary condition for persuasion to occur. 
  • In the “Questions to Sharpen Your Focus” feature, two more probing questions were added. 
  • In the “Second Look” feature, added two new recent books--A Burkean primer with an annotated list of key terms and a critical Burkean analysis of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech.

Narrative Paradigm (Chapter 24)

From the Instructors Manual: 

This chapter is largely unchanged. Griffin has made minor edits for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes:

 

  • Updated examples of narrative coherence.  
  • In “Second Look” feature, two new recent citations.

Mass Communication: Media and Culture

Media Ecolgy (Chapter 25)

From the Instructors Manual:

The content of this chapter is largely unchanged from the 8th edition; it has been edited for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes: 

  • New opening example from PBS documentary “Digital Nation” that discusses the changing media environment. 
  • New quote from McLuhan and explanation of the phrase, “the medium is the message.” 
  • New material from Neil Postman in the ethical reflection section. 
  • New paragraph on the intuitive appeal of McLuhan’s observations about popular culture.

Semiotics (Chapter 26)

From the Instructors Manual:

In this edition, Griffin has streamlined the coverage of Charles Peirce’s triadic model of the sign. Otherwise, this chapter has minor edits for clarity and precision. The theoretical content and examples are essentially unchanged.

Authors' notes:

  • Simplified and shortened the chapter be deleting Peirce’s alternative theory.  
  • Introduced a new student application log that recounts a semiotic shift in her own life.

Cultural Studies (Chapter 27)

From the Instructors Manual: 

Griffin has made edits for clarity and precision in this edition. Additionally, he and his co-authors removed a section on post 9/11 rhetoric. Instead, he focuses on the cultural factors that affect media coverage. Lastly, the ethical reflection on Cornel West’s Prophetic Pragmatism that, in the 8th edition, was included in Deetz’ Critical theory has been moved to this chapter.

Authors' notes:

  • Rewrote section on broadcast and print new supporting dominant ideology using Obamacare as a case study.
  • Discussed satire as a possible form of resistance to the dominant ideology using example of the Daily Show and Colbert Report. 
  • In an ethical reflection, compared Cornel West’s  prophetic pragmatism to Hall’s version of cultural studies.
  • In Second Look section, introduced four recent resources.

Mass Communication: Media Effects

Uses and Gratifications (Chapter 28)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited for clarity; the core of the theoretical material remains intact even if some descriptions have been reworked.

Authors' notes:

  • Updated example of different uses & grats for watching a hockey game.
  • Several new paragraphs in the critique section with new comments from other scholars that address some of the criticisms of the theory.

Cultivation Theory (Chapter 29)

From the Instructors Manual:

Except editing for clarity and precision, this chapter is largely unchanged. Some references in A Second Look section have also been updated.

Agenda-Setting Theory (Chapter 30)

From the Instructors Manual:

The changes made to this chapter include minor edits for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes:

  • New example for the behavioral effect of agenda-setting from research by Craig Trumbo on press reports about the flu. 
  • Revised discussion on who sets the agenda for the agenda-setters?
  • Revised discussion with new citation on whether the strength of the agenda-setting effect is shrinking in the age of new media.

Cultural Context: Intercultural Communication

Communication Accommodation Theory (Chapter 31)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited for clarity and precision but the content remains the same as presented in the 8th edition.

Authors' notes: 

  • Three “Second Look” sources have been updated to recent studies addressing accommodation in intergenerational, interethnic, and workplace contexts.
  • A new "Conversations" video has been filmed for this edition. See Andrew's interview with Howie Giles here at afirstlook.com or on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KExeBNB5wy8.

Face-Negotiation Theory (Chapter 32)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been edited very lightly for clarity and precision. A new cartoon has also been selected to accompany this chapter.

Authors' notes:

  • In the critique section, included recent critical comments by Gerry Philipsen as well as a 2013 citation to Ting-Toomey’s most recent research.

Speech Codes Theory (Chapter 33)

From the Instructors Manual

This chapter was edited for clarity and precision. Though much of the material remains the same, Griffin offers a somewhat retooled critique especially as it applies to the theory’s lack of quantitative rigor.

Authors' notes:

  • Added clarity to Propsition 2 on the multiplicity of speech codes with a new example. 
  • Clarified Proposition 5 on the site of speech codes with additional explanation and added student application log. 
  • In Critique section, a major revision and a contrast with the assumptions and methodology of Ting-Toomey’s face negotiation theory.
  • In Second Look secion, three new recent citations, including two articles by Philipsen.

Cultural Context: Gender and Communication

Genderlect Styles (Chapter 34)

From the Instructors Manual:

To adjust to copyright restrictions, the discussion of When Harry Met Sally that previously illustrated this chapter’s concepts have largely been removed. Instead, the textbook’s co-author Glenn Sparks illustrated Tannen’s statements with examples from his own marriage. The chapter has also been retooled to emphasis the development nature of genderlects by including material on how children’s upbringing contributes to their style of communication in adult life. A section has been added to examine this issue. Through the chapter, material has been edited for clarity and precision.

Authors' notes:

  • Replaced the core chapter example—movie dialogue from When Harry Met Sally—with alternative examples. 
  • Included new material on rules of conversation that boys and girls learn early in life.
  • Included new material on the significance of “speech communities” as a possible origin of genderlect 
  • Included new section on nonverbal communication as an extension of conversational style

Standpoint Theory (Chapter 35)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been retooled fairly significantly but the theoretical content is unchanged. Beyond edits for clarity and precision, the chapter-long example has been changed. In the 8th edition, passages were drawn from Beloved but in this edition, The Help becomes the example. To me, it’s a better, clearer fit and more likely that students will have read the book (perhaps) or seen the movie (more likely).

Authors' notes:

  • Tony Morrison’s story of Beloved that ran throughout the chapter has been replaced with dialogue and descriptions from the recent best-selling novel The Help, which in 2011 was made into an award-winning Hollywood film. The story is used to illustrate those who are marginalized, local knowledge, and strong objectivity.
  • Added emphasis on Harding and Wood’s warning that location on the margins of society doesn’t automatically assure a more objective standpoint. It is only through critical reflection on unjust power relations and working to resist this oppression that a feminist standpoint is formed.

Muted Group Theory (Chapter 36)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter has been editing for clarity and precision. In addition, the discussion of online communication (from the 8th edition) has been eliminated. Instead, the chapter includes a reflection on the goals or preferred outcomes of co-cultural, muted groups.

Authors' notes:

  • The description of Kramarae’s research on women’s use of technology has been replaced with a brief introduction to Orbe’s Co-Cultural Theory. Although the technological angle had some appeal, little research has appeared since the 8th edition. In contrast, Orbe’s work represents the cutting edge of research in this theoretical tradition.

Integration

Common Threads in Comm Theories (Chapter 37)

From the Instructors Manual:

This chapter is edited for clarity, precision and to streamline the connection points between the theories. Here Griffin has reduced the number of different theories that are laced together while still maintaining the 10 threads or principles. In other words, there is the same number of themes or cords, but with slightly fewer strands in each bundle.

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