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Face Negotiation Theory
Stella Ting-Toomey

Cultural Context: Intercultural Communication


Theory Overview (9th Edition)

People who have an interdependent self-image in a collectivistic culture are concerned with giving other-face or mutual-face, so they adopt a conflict style of avoiding or integrating. People who have an independent self-image in an individualistic culture are concerned with protecting self-face, so they adopt a conflict style of dominating. (Socio-cultural and socio-psychological traditions)

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