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Further Resources (9th Edition)

From the Instructors Manual, plus additional items


Launching Your Study (Chapter 1)

  • For good collections of general essays on communication theory, see
    • Fred L. Casmir, ed., Building Communication Theories: A Sociological Approach (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994). 
    • Gregory J. Shepherd, Jeffrey St. John, & Ted Striphas, eds. Communication As...: Perspectives on Theory (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006).

Talk About Theory (Chapter 2)

  • In “The Third Way: Scientific Realism and Communication Theory,” Communication Theory 9 (May 1999): 162-88, Charles Pavitt further clarifies—and complicates—the “scientific” approach to communication theory. 
  • If you’d like to read more about Em Griffin’s view of communication research, we recommend “Journal of Communication and Religion: A State-of-the-Art Review,” Journal of Communication and Religion 21 (1998): 108-40. 
  • For essays on theory and research in interpersonal communication, see Barbara Montgomery and Steve Duck, eds., Studying Interpersonal Interaction (New York: Guilford, 1991). 
  • For discussion of the ways in which science is inherently interpretive or rhetorical, see:
    • Alan Gross, Joseph Harmon, and Michael Reidy, Communicating Science: The Scientific Article from the Seventeenth Century to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002);
    • Charles Bazerman, Shaping Written Knowledge: Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988);
    • Alan G. Gross, The Rhetoric of Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990);

Differences between the interpretive and the objective perspectives on communication

  • For additional discussion, see Glen McClish’ article, “Humanist and Empiricist Rhetorics: Some Reflections on Rhetorical Sensitivity, Message Design Logics, and Multiple Goal Structures,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 23 (Summer/Fall 1994): 27-45.  Because he tries to offer a way in which interpretive scholars (which he call humanists) can learn from their objective (which he call empiricist) colleagues, you may wish to revisit this article as you prepare to teach the final chapter in the book, which further explores the relationship between the two camps. 

Multiple interpretations of text

  • For further discussion, see Leah Ceccarelli, “Polysemy: Multiple Meanings in Rhetorical Criticism,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (November 1998): 395-15. 

Free will and determinism

  • One of the finest discussions we know of the debate over free will and determinism is William James's “The Dilemma of Determinism,” The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy, 145-83.  James's analogy of the chess game between the novice and the expert demonstrates a kind of resolution or middle ground between the free will argument and the determinist argument (181-82).  The fact that James works religion into the discussion makes his position even more interesting. 

Science and subjectivity

  • Two intriguing discussions of science and subjectivity are James Watson's classic expose, The Double Helix (New York: NAL, 1969), and David Raup's The Nemesis Star: A Story of the Death of Dinosaurs and the Ways of Science (New York: Norton, 1986). 


  • For discussion of the issue of what constitutes appropriate evidence in communication research, see:
    • The symposium “The Dialogue of Evidence: A Topic Revisited,” Western Journal of Communication 58 (1994): 1-71;
    • Stuart J. Sigman, “Question: Evidence of What?  Answer: Communication,” Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 79-84;
    • Leslie Baxter and Lee West, “On ‘Whistler's Mother’ and Discourse of the Fourth Kind,” Western Journal of Communication 60 (1996): 92-100. 

Weighing the Words (Chapter 3)


  • A good basic ethnography text is Wendy Bishop’s Ethnographic Writing Research: Writing It Down, Writing It Up, and Reading It (Portsmith, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1999).
  • See also H. Lloyd Goodall, Writing the New Ethnography (Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, (2000). 
  • An intriguing ethnographic effort is H. Lloyd Goodall’s trilogy, Casing a Promised Land: The Autobiography of an Organizational Detective as Cultural Ethnographer (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989), Living Rock n Roll Mystery: Reading Context, Self, and Others as Clues (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991), and Divine Signs: Connecting Spirit to Community (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996). 
  • For other examples of ethnography, see:
    • Elissa Foster, Communicating at the End of Life (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007).
    • Lyall Crawford, “Personal Ethnography,” Communication Monographs 63 (1996): 158-70;
    • Dwight Conquergood, “Rethinking Ethnography: Towards a Critical Cultural Politics,” Communication Monographs 58 (1991): 179-94;
    • AltaMira Press’s Ethnographic Alternatives series, particularly Carolyn Ellis and Arthur P. Bochner’s Composing Ethnography: Alternative Forms of Qualitative Writing (Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press, 1996);
    • John Van Maanen, Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. 

Mapping the Territory (Chapter 4)

  • Bruce Gronbeck’s 1998 Carroll C. Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “Paradigms of Speech Communication Studies: Looking Back to the Future” (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999), provides an alternative view of the discipline’s “territory.”  
  • A perplexing, yet illuminating text is Richard Rodriguez's autobiography, Hunger of Memory (New York: Bantam, 1982), in which the author both celebrates and agonizes over his one-way journey from the working-class, Spanish-speaking world of his Mexican-born parents to the English-speaking, American upper-middle class he and his siblings eventually enter.  Rodriguez's case is particularly intriguing because he denies the importance of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.  Arguing that language itself is merely a conduit, rather than a creator, of meaning, Rodriguez nonetheless chronicles his growing distance from his parents, a distance that seems inevitably linked to differences in communication.
  • For sources on the rhetorical tradition, see our treatment of Public Rhetoric.

Interpersonal Communication: Interpersonal Messages

Symbolic Interactionism (Chapter 5)

  • Good general texts are Joel M. Charon, Symbolic Interactionism: An Introduction, An Interpretation, An Integration, 7th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000), and John P. Hewitt, Self and Society: A Symbolic Interactionist Social Psychology (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1991). 
  • Because Mead is a root, rather than a branch, of communication theory, symbolic interactionism's influence is pervasive in our field. Recent studies that owe a heavy intellectual debt to Mead and Blumer include:
    • William A. Donohue, An Interactionist Framework for Peace, Emerging Theories of Human Communication, ed. Branislaw Kovacic (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 65-87;
    • H. Lloyd Goodall, A Cultural Inquiry Concerning the Ontological and Epistemic Dimensions of Self, Other, and Context in Communication Scholarship, Speech Communication: Essays to Commemorate the 75th Anniversary of The Speech Communication Association, ed. Gerald Phillips and Julia Wood (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990), 264-92;
    • Takie Sugiyama Lebra, Culture, Self, and Communication in Japan and the United States, Communication in Japan and the United States, ed. William B. Gudykunst (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993), 51-87;
    • Shirley A. Staske, Talking Feelings: The Collaborative Construction of Emotion in Talk Between Close Relational Partners, Symbolic Interaction 19 (1996): 111-35;
    • Ralph LaRossa, Stories and Relationships, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 12 (1995): 553-58. 

Applied Symbolic Interactionism

  • For a study that applies social interactionism to cross-cultural communication research, see Peggy J. Miller, Heidi Fung, and Judith Mintz, Self-Construction through Narrative Practices: A Chinese and American Comparison of Early Socialization, Ethos 24 (1996): 237-80. 
  • For an interesting exploration of the connections between symbolic interactionism and human sexuality, see Monica A. Longmore, Symbolic Interactionism and the Study of Sexuality, Journal of Sex Research 35 (February 1998): 44-57. 
  • If you or your students have an interest in the dramaturgical issues raised by Goffman, we recommend recent work in performance theory. The journal Text and Performance Quarterly is a good place to begin. 

The Pygmalion Effect

  • For discussion of the Pygmalion Effect and self-fulfilling prophecy, see:
    • Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom (New York: Holt, 1968);
    • Robert Rosenthal, The Pygmalion Effect Lives, Psychology Today 7 (1973): 56-63;
    • Paul M. Insel and Lenore Jacobson, What Do You Expect?  An Inquiry Into Self-Fulfilling Prophecies (Menlo Park, CA: Cummings, 1975);
    • Mark Snyder, Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes, Psychology Today 16 (1982): 60-68. 

Coordinated Management of Meaning (CCM) (Chapter 6)

  • For additional scholarship from Pearce, see
    • “Bringing News of Difference: Participation in Systemic Social Constructionist Communication,” Innovations in Group Facilitation: Applications in Natural Settings, 94-116. 
    • Extending the Theory of the Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) Through a Community Dialogue Process by W. Barnett Pearce and Kimberly Pearce.  Communication Theory 10(4), 2000: 405-424.
    • “Looking for justice in all the wrong places: On a communication approach to social justice” by Lawrence R. Frey and W. Barnett Pearce, Communication Studies, 47(Spring/Summer, 1996), 110-128.
  • For an applied CMM analysis, see Edith Montgomery, “Tortured families: A Coordinated Management of Meaning Analysis,” in Family Process 43(3), 2004, 349-371.
  • For a thoughtful—if somewhat dated—critique of CMM, see Gerry Philipsen, “The Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory of Pearce, Cronen, and Associates,” in Watershed Research Traditions in Human Communication Theory, ed. Donald Cushman and Branislav Kovocic (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995): 13-43.
  • An entire issue of Human Systems (Vol. 15, 2004) is devoted to CMM.  It’s available online at
  • A copy of Pearce & Cronen (1980) Communication, Action and
    Meaning: The Creation of Social Realities. NY: Praeger, the report of the
    first phase of the CMM project, is available at

Buber’s Dialogic Ethics

  • Although Buber was not a communication scholar per se, his philosophy has been extremely influential in communication circles.  In his interpersonal communication textbook, Bridges Not Walls, for example, John Stewart presents Buber as his foundation for meaningful human communication (36-42, 663--81).  Julia T. Wood follows a similar strategy in Everyday Encounters: An Introduction to Interpersonal Communication, 19-21.  For more information on Buber, Richard L. Johannesen's Ethics in Human Communication is a good general source, as is his entry, “Buber,” in the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition (86-87). 
  • For the Buber/Carl Rogers' connection, see:
    • Maurice Friedman, The Confirmation of Otherness in Family, Community, and Society (New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1983).
    • Kenneth N. Cissna and Rob Anderson, Moments of Meeting: Buber, Rogers, and the Potential for Public Dialogue (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002).
    • Cissna and Anderson, The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997).
    • Anderson and Cissna, “Theorizing about Dialogic Moments: The Buber-Rogers Position and Postmodern Themes,” Communication Theory 8 (February 1998): 63-104. 
  • For a good collection of essays on dialogue, see Rob Anderson, Kenneth Cissna, and Ronald C. Arnett, The Reach of Dialogue: Confirmation, Voice, and Community (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1994). 
  • For a distinctly feminine perspective on ethics that borrows from Buber, see Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984).

Expectancy Violations Theory (Chapter 7)

Close relationships

  • For discussion of expectancy violations in the context of close relationships, see
    • Jennifer Bevan, “Expectancy violation theory and sexual resistance in close, cross-sex relationships,” Communication Monographs, 70(1), 2003, 68-82.
    • Kory Floyd and Michael Voloudakis, “Affectionate Behavior in Adult Platonic Friendship: Interpreting and Evaluating Expectancy Violations,” Human Communication Research 25 (March 1999): 341-69.
    •  Walid Afifi and Sandra Metts, “Characteristics and consequences of expectation violations in close relationships,” Journal of Personal and Social Relationships 15(3), 1998, 365-392.

 EVT in applied situations

  • Burgoon’s theory has been applied to a wide variety of situations. The following represent only a few of those projects, and only ones that center around EVT. See the “Further Resources” section of interpersonal deception theory (Theory Archive) for projects that involve violations of expectations in deceptive situations.
    • Shelly Campo, Kenzie Cameron, Dominique Brossard, and Somjen Frazer, “Social norms and expectancy violation theories: Assessing the effectiveness of health communication campaigns,” Communication Monographs 71(4), 2004, 448-471.
    • Pamela Lannutti, Melanie Laliker, and Jerold Hale, “Violations of expectations and social-sexual communication in student/professor interactions,” Communication Education 50(1), 2001, 69-82.
    • Paul Mongeau and Colleen Carey, “Who’s wooing whom II? An experimental investigation of date-initiation and expectancy violation,” Western Journal of Communication 60 (3), 1996, 195-204.

Interaction Adaptation Theory

  • For a comprehensive look at IAT, see Judee Burgoon, Lesa Stern, and Leesa Dillman, Interpersonal adaptation: Dyadic interaction patterns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  • Beth A. Le Poire and Stephen M. Yoshimura exemplify research on EVT and IAT in “The Effects of Expectancies and Actual Communication on Nonverbal Adaptation and Communication Outcomes: A Test of Interaction Adaptation Theory,” Communication Monographs 66 (March 1999): 1-30.



Interpersonal Communication: Relationship Development

Social Penetration Theory (Chapter 8)

  • For a study that builds on the work of John Thibaut and Harold Kelley, see Michael Sunnafrank, 'You've Lost That Loving Feeling': Romance Loss as a Function of Relationship Development and Escalation Processes, Communication and Social Influence Processes, ed. Charles R. Berger (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995), 133-53. 
  • For additional discussion of depenetration, see Betsy Tolstedt and Joseph Stokes, Self-Disclosure, Intimacy, and Depenetration Process, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (1984): 84-90. 
  • If students want to learn more about social exchange theory, Griffin's chapter-length treatment from the Second Edition (available on the website discussed in the Preface to this manual) is a good place to begin. 

Johari window

  • If you present the Johari window to complement and contrast with social penetration, see:
    • Joseph Luft, Of Human Interaction (Palo Alto, CA: National Press, 1969);
    • Ronald Adler and Neil Towne, Looking Out/Looking In, 341-44;
    • Gerald L. Wilson, Alan M. Hantz, and Michael S. Hanna, Interpersonal Growth Through Communication, 4th ed. (Dubuque, IA: Wm C. Brown, 1995), 53-55;
    • Richard Weaver, Understanding Interpersonal Communication, 7th ed. (New York: HarperCollins, 1996), 430-32. 

Uncertainty Reduction Theory (Chapter 9)

  • An essay of interest is Charles Berger and Nancy Kellerman, “Acquiring Social Information,” in John Daly and John Wiemann, Strategic Interpersonal Communication, 1-31. 
  • Walid A. Afifi and Josephine W. Lee apply Berger”s theory of planing in “Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies,” Communication Monographs 67 (September 2000): 284-305. 
  • In “Communication in the Management of Uncertainty: The Case of Persons Living with HIV or AIDS,” Communication Monographs 67 (March 2000): 63-84, Dale E. Brashers et al. discuss a theory of management of uncertainty “in which the desire to reduce uncertainty is assumed to be only one of several responses to events and circumstances marked by unpredictability, ambiguity, or insufficient information” (64). 
  • Michael Boyle, Mike Schmierbach, Cory Armstong, Douglas McLeod, Dhavan, Shah, and Pan Zhongdang  explore how uncertainty reduction theory might explain people”s reaction to tragedy in their article, “Information seeking and emotional reactions to the September 11 terrorist attacks.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(1), 155-168.

Uncertainty reduction in close relationships

  • Kimberly Downs, “Family Commitment Role Perceptions, Social Support, and Mutual Children in Remarriage: A Test of Uncertainty Reduction Theory.”  Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 40(1/2), 2003, 35-54.
  • Leanne K. Knobloch and Denise Haunani Solomon explore how URT might affect existing relationships in their article, “Information seeking beyond initial interaction: Negotiating relational uncertainty within close relationships,” Human Communication Research, 28(2), 2002, 243-257.

Uncertainty reduction strategies

  • In “Strategic and nonstrategic information acquisition,” Human Communication Research, 28(2), (April, 2002): 287-297, Berger explores information seeking
  • Tara M. Emmers and Daniel J. Canary explore uncertainty reduction strategies used in established relationships in their article, “The effect of uncertainty reducing strategies on young couples' relational repair and intimacy,” Communication Quarterly, 44(2), 166-183.

Anxiety-Uncertainty Management Theory (AUM)

  • Anxiety-uncertainty management theory builds on the insights of uncertainty reduction theory, with an aim toward understanding uncertainty in intercultural contexts. AUM was given full-chapter treatment in previous editions of the text. The chapter is now available on the website, under the “Theory Archive”
  • William Gudykunst assesses uncertainty reduction theory in “The Uncertainty Reduction and Anxiety-Uncertainty Reduction Theories of Berger, Gudykunst, and Associates,” Watershed Research Traditions in Human Communication Theory, 67-100. 
  • For a special forum on mindfulness, see Communication Monographs 59 (1992): 301-27.  C. Erik Timmerman applies the concept of mindfulness to organizational media research in “The Moderating Effect of Mindlessness/Mindfulness Upon Media Richness and Social Influence Explanations of Organizational Media Use,” Communication Monographs (June 2002): 111-37.

Social Information Processing Theory (Chapter 10)

  • Barbara Warnick takes a rhetorical approach to theoretical issues of the Internet in “Rhetorical Criticism of Public Discourse on the Internet: Theoretical Implications,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 28 (Fall 1998): 73-84.  She has also produced a full-length treatment of rhetoric and technology entitled Critical Literacy in a Digital Era: Technology, Rhetoric, and the Public Interest (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002) and review essay on the relationship between argument and new media:  “Analogues to Argument: New Media and Literacy in a Posthuman Era,” Argument and Advocacy (Spring 2002): 262-70.

Relationship development

  • For more on verbal and nonverbal affinity exchange, see Joseph B  Walther, Tracy Loh, & Laura Granka, “Let me count the ways: The Interchange of Verbal and Nonverbal Cues in Computer- Mediated and Face-to-Face Affinity,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 24(1), March 2005, 36-66.
  • Kevin B. Wright explores relational maintenance in on-line relationships in his article, “on-line relational maintenance strategies and perceptions of partners within exclusively Internet-based and primarily internet-based relationships,” Communication Studies 55(2), 2004, 239- 254.
  • For more on disclosure, see Lisa Collins Tidwell and Walther “Computer-Mediated Communication Effects on Disclosure, Impressions, and Interpersonal Evaluations: Getting To Know One Another a Bit at a Time,”  Human Communication Research, 28(3), July 2002, 317-348.
  • Sonja Utz explores friendship development in her article, “Social information processing in MUDs: The development of friendships in virtual worlds,”  Journal of Online Behavior, 1(1), 2000. pp. NP.
  • Artemio Ramirez Jr., Joe Walther, Judee Burgoon, and Michael Sunnafrank intersect SIP with URT in “Information-Seeking Strategies, Uncertainty, and Computer-Mediated Communication,” Human Communication Research, 28(2),  April 2002, 213-229.
  • For more on relationship initiation, see Jeffrey S. McQuillen’s article “The influence of technology on the initiation of interpersonal relationships.” Education, 123(3), Spring 2003, p. 616- 624.

Communication and technology
For discussion of information technology and the computer’s effect on communication, see:

  • Alan L. Porter and William H. Read, The Information Revolution: Current and Future Consequences (Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 1998).
  • Nick Heap et al., eds., Information Technology and Society: A Reader (London: Sage, 1995).
  • Nicolas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1995).
  • Frank Biocca and Mark Levy, eds., Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995).
  • Steven G. Jones, Cybersociety: Computer-Mediated Communication and Community (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995), Virtual Culture: Identity and Communication in Cybersociety (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1997), and Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Society (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998).
  • David Holmes, Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997).
  • Tharon W. Howard, A Rhetoric of Electronic Communities (Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 1997).
  • Sara Kiesler, Cultures of the Internet (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997).
  • David Slayden and Rita Kirk Whillock, Soundbite Culture: The Death of Discourse in a Wired World (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999).
  • Tom Koch, The Message is the Medium: Online All the Time for Everyone (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996).
  • Kevin A. Hill and John E. Hughs, Cyberpolitics: Citizen Activism in the Age of the Internet (Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield, 1998) Bosah Ebo, ed., Cyberghetto or Cybertopia?  Race, Class and Gender on the Internet (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998).
  • James W. Chesebro and Donald G. Bonsall, Computer-Mediated Communication: Human Relationships in a Computerized World (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989).  One of Chesebro and Bonsall's principal contentions is that “computerized communication is altering human communication itself” (7).

Distance Education

  • Karen Swan, “Building Learning Communities in Online Courses: the importance of interaction,”  Education, Communication & Information, 2(1),  May 2002, 23-50.
  • Jennifer Waldeck, Patricia Kearney, and Timothy Plax explore e-mail messages between educators and students in their article, “Teacher e-mail message strategies and students' willingness to communicate online,” in the Journal of Applied Communication Research, 29(1), February 2001, 54-70.
  • Paul L. Witt & Lawrence R. Wheeless, “Nonverbal Communication Expectancies about Teachers and Enrollment Behavior in Distance Learning.” Communication Education, 48(2) April 1999, 149-154.
  • For more on teacher immediacy in online classes, see:
    • Lori J. Carrell and Kent E. Menzel, “Variations in Learning, Motivation, and Perceived Immediacy between Live and Distance Education Classrooms,” Communication Education, 50 (3), July 2001, 230-40.
    •  Roger N. Conaway, Susan S. Easton, & Wallace V. Schmidt, “Strategies for Enhancing Student Interaction and Immediacy in Online Courses.”  Business Communication Quarterly, 68(1), March 2005, 23-36.
    • J. B. Arbaugh, “How Instructor Immediacy Behaviors Affect Student Satisfaction and Learning in Web-based Courses.” Business Communication Quarterly, 64(4), December 200142-54.

Interpersonal Communication: Relationship Maintenance

Relational Dialectics (Chapter 11)

Other relevant essays by Baxter

  • “A Tale of Two Voices: Relational Dialectics Theory.” Journal of Family Communication, 4 (3/4), 2004: 181- 193.
  • “Relationships as dialogues.” Personal Relationships, 11(1), 2004: 1- 22.
  • “A Dialogic Approach to Relationship Maintenance,” Communication and Relational Maintenance, ed. Canary and Stafford, 257-73.
  • “Dialectical Contradictions in Relationship Development,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 7 (1990): 69-88.
  • “The Social Side of Personal Relationships: A Dialectical Perspective,” Social Context and Relationships (Understanding Relational Processes 3), ed. Steve Duck (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993), 139-65. 

State-of-the-art research

  • Erin Sahlstein, a former graduate student of Baxter now at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, has worked extensively in the area of the dialectical challenges in long-distances relationship.  Some articles of interest to review:  “Relating at a distance: Negotiating being together and being apart in long-distance relationships” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 21(5), 2004: 689-710  or “Making plans: Praxis strategies for negotiating uncertainty-certainty in long-distance relationships.”  Western Journal of Communication, 70(2), 2006: 147- 165.
  • The particular challenges of stepfamilies have also come under examination recently.  Some articles to review include:  Dawn O. Braithwaite and Leslie Baxter, “You’re my parent but you’re not: Dialectical tensions in stepchildren’s perceptions about communication with the nonresidential parent,” Journal of Applied Communication, 34(1), 2006; 30-48 or Baxter, Dawn O. Braithwaite, and Leah Bryant, “Stepchildren's perceptions of the contradictions in communication with stepparents.” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 21(4), 2004: 447-467.
  • Angela Hoppe-Nagao and Stella Ting-Toomey, “Relational Dialectics and Management Strategies in Marital Couples,” Southern Communication Journal 67 (Winter 2002): 142-59. 
  • Dawn O. Braithwaite and Leslie Baxter, “'I Do' Again: The Relational Dialectics of Renewing Marital Vows,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 12 (1995): 177-98.
  • Carol Masheter, “Dialogues Between Ex-Spouses: Evidence of Dialectical Relationship Development,” Uses of “STRUCTURE” in Communication Studies, ed. Richard L. Conville, 83-101.

Literary examples

  • If you enjoy using literature in your classroom,
    • I highly recommend selections from Kahlil Gibran's The Prophet.  The poems entitled “On Marriage” and “On Love” are particularly relevant to the connectedness-separateness dichotomy. 
    • Although less well known, Denise Levertov's poem “About Marriage,” in O Taste and See (New York: New Directions, 1962), artfully lends a woman's perspective to Gibran's themes. 
    • Eudora Welty's pensive, subtle story “The Bride of Innisfallen,” which can be found in The Collected Stories of Eudora Welty (New York: Harcourt, 1982), 495-518, poignantly captures a young woman's struggles with the openness-closedness and connectedness-separateness dichotomies.
    • For your male students in particular, we recommend Patrick O’Brian’s extensive series of sea novels, which features the extroverted, passionate, practical Captain Jack Aubrey and the introverted, cerebral, scientifically minded Stephen Maturin, naval surgeon, naturalist, and secret agent.  Aubrey and Maturin’s complex, often tense, always vibrant friendship, which is developed and nurtured in vividly recorded dialogue, illustrates many dialectical elements and demonstrates that long-term close relationships embodying Baxter and Montgomery’s approach need not be romantic or familial.  The first novel in the series is Master and Commander, which is also the title of a popular film based on the series. 
  • Two recent novels that provocatively engage the complexity of truth telling and deception, particularly the constitutive power of the latter, are Peter Carey’s My Life as a Fake (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003) and Tobias Wolff’s Old School (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003). 

Communication Privacy Management Theory (Chapter 12)

CPM has been applied to a variety of contexts.  In some articles/writings, the theory has gone by the name “Communication Boundary Management.”  (CBM)

Relational & Family

  • Caughlin, J. P., Scott, A. M., Miller, L. E., & Hefner, V. (2009). “Putative secrets: When information is supposedly a secret,”  Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 26(5), 713-743.
  • Hollenbaugh, E. E., & Egbert, N. (2009).  “A Test of Communication Privacy Management Theory in Cross-Sex Friendships,”  Ohio Communication Journal, 47,113-136.
  • Joseph, A. L., & Afifi, T. D. (2010).  “Military Wives’ Stressful Disclosures to Their Deployed Husbands: The Role of Protective Buffering,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, 38(4), 412-434.
  • Ledbetter, A. M., Heiss, S., Sibal, K., Lev, E., Battle-Fisher, M., & Shubert, N. (2010). “Parental Invasive and Children’s Defensive Behaviors at Home and Away at College: Mediated Communication and Privacy Boundary Management,” Communication Studies, 61(2), 184-204.
  • McBride, M., & Bergen, K. (2008).  “Communication Research: Becoming a Reluctant Confidant: Communication Privacy Management in Close Friendships,” Texas Speech Communication Journal, 33(1), 50-61.
  • Miller, A. E. (2009).  “Revealing and Concealing Postmarital Dating Information: Divorced Coparents’ Privacy Rule Development and Boundary Coordination Processes,” Journal of Family Communication, 9(3), 135-149.
  • Thorson, A. R. (2009).  “Adult Children’s Experiences with their Parent’s Infidelity: Communicative Protection and Access Rules in the Absence of Divorce,” Communication Studies, 60(1), 32-48.


  • Chih-Hui, L., Ellison, N. B., & Gibbs, J. L. (2009).  “First Comes Love, Then Comes Google: An Investigation of Communication Privacy Management Strategies and Self-Disclosure in Online Dating,” Conference Papers -- International Communication Association, 1-45.
  • Child, J. T., & Agyeman-Budu, E. A. (2010).  “Blogging privacy management rule development: The impact of self-monitoring skills, concern for appropriateness, and blogging frequency,”  Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 957-963.

Workplace & Educational

  • Hosek, A. M., & Thompson, J. (2009).  “Communication Privacy Management and College Instruction: Exploring the Rules and Boundaries that Frame Instructor Private Disclosures,”  Communication Education, 58(3), 327-349.
  • Snyder, J. L. (2010).  “E-Mail privacy in the workplace: A Boundary Regulation Perspective,” Journal of Business Communication, 47(3), 266-294.
  • Snyder, J. L., & Cornetto, K. M. (2009).  “Employee Perceptions of E-mail Monitoring from a Boundary Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, 60(5), 476-492.

Health Communication/ Cross- cultural applications

  • Bute, J. J., & Vik, T. A. (2010).  "Privacy Management as Unfinished Business: Shifting Boundaries in the Context of Infertility,” Communication Studies, 61(1), 1-20.
  • Harris, J., Bowen, D. J., Badr, H., Hannon, P., Hay, J., & Regan Sterba, K. (2009).  “Family Communication During the Cancer Experience,” Journal of Health Communication, 1476-84.
  • Matsunaga, M. (2010).  “Individual dispositions and interpersonal concerns underlying bullied victims’ self-disclosure in Japan and the US,” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 27(8), 1124-1148.
  • Smith, R. A., & Niedermyer, A. J. (2009).  “Keepers of the Secret: Desires to Conceal a Family Member's HIV-Positive Status in Namibia, Africa,” Health Communication, 24(5), 459-472.

The Interactional View (Chapter 13)

  • We highly recommend Janet Yerby, Nancy Buerkel-Rothfuss, and Arthur P. Bochner's excellent textbook, Understanding Family Communication, 2nd ed. (Scottsdale: Gorsuch Scarisbrick, 1995), which is largely based on the interactional approach championed by Watzlawick and his associates.  The book is filled with useful examples and case studies, and it provides in-depth discussion, elaboration, and extension of the basic principles set forth by Griffin in this chapter.  It is also a good source for further discussion and examples of social constructionism and relational dialectics. 
  • For more reading on the controversial axiom “one cannot not communicate,” see the exchange among Michael Motley, Janet Beavin Bavelas, and Wayne Beach, Western Journal of Speech Communication 54 (1990): 1-20, 593-623. 
  • James Price Dillard et al. discuss recent developments in relational communication (as opposed to content) in “Structuring the Concept of Relational Communication,” Communication Monographs 66 (March 1999): 49-65. 

Literary sources

  • If you enjoy using literature to illustrate theory, I heartily recommend Eudora Welty's humorous short story, “Why I Live at the P.O,” which can be found in The Collected Stories of Eudora Welty, 46-56, and numerous literary anthologies.  The storyteller's intriguingly punctuated version of her family's behavior constitutes a wonderful example of dysfunctional communication. 
  • For collections of stories about families, see Barbara H. Solomon, American Families: 28 Short Stories (New York: Penguin, 1989); Geri Giebel Chavis, Family: Stories from the Interior (St. Paul: Graywolf, 1987).

Feature films

  • There is an abundance of feature-length films that highlight families and can be used as fitting examples of the Interactional view.  In addition to those mentioned above, other  favorites include Finding Neverland, Pieces of April, My Big Fat Greek Wedding, Whats Eating Gilbert Grape?, 28 Days, and Mi Familia (My Family).

Interpersonal Communication: Influence

Social Judgment Theory (Chapter 14)

  • For the original statement of the theory, see Muzafer Sherif and Carl Hovland’s book, Social judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change,  (1965), Oxford, England: Yale University Press.
  • Social judgment has much practical appeal and as such, the research includes a number of pragmatic test of theory including:
    • Healthcare:  Jeffrey D. Robinson, Janice L. Raup-Krieger, Greg Burke, Valerie Weber, and Brett Oesterling (2008).  “The relative influence of patients’ pre-visit global satisfaction with medical care and patients’ post-visit satisfaction with physicians’ communication.” Communication Research Reports, 25(1), 1-9.
    • Politics: Sandi W. Smith, Charles K. Atkin, Dennis Martell, Rebecca Allen, and Larry Hembroff (2006), “A social judgment theory approach to conducting formative research in a social norms campaign.”  Communication Theory, 16(1), 141- 152.
  • Some good sources for comparing social judgment with other theories include:
    • Siero, F. W. & Doosje, B. J. (1993). “Attitude change following persuasive communication: Integrating Social Judgment Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model.” European Journal of Social Psychology, 23(5), 541-554.
    • Sorrentino, R. M., Bobocel, D. R., Gitta, M. Z., Olson, J. M., & Hewitt, E. C. (1988). Uncertainty Orientation and Persuasion: Individual Differences in the Effects of Personal Relevance on Social Judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(3), 357-371.
  • Pollis, N. P., Pollis, C. A. & Rader, J. A. (1971).  Attitude change without persuasion.  Journal of Social Psychology, 84(2), 225-232.

Elaboration Likelihood Model (Chapter 15)

  • For a brief history of social influence research, see William Crano’s article, Milestones in the Psychological Analysis of Social Influence. Group Dynamics, 4(1), 2000, 68-80.
  • For studies that follow in the tradition of Petty and Cacioppo, see:
    • Satish Joseph and Teresa L. Thompson, “The Effect of Vividness on the Memorability and Persuasiveness of a Sermon: A Test of the Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Journal of Communication & Religion,  27.2 (2004): 217-245.
    •  Arjun Chaudhuri and Ross Buck, “Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies that Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses,” Human Communication Research 21 (1995): 422-41. 
  • Perloff’s Persuading People to Have Safer Sex: Applications of Social Science to the AIDS Crisis  applies ELM to disease prevention (80-81).
  • For a discussion of persuasion resistance see B. J. Sagarin, R. B. Cialdini, W.E. Rice, & S. B. Serna’s 2002 article, “Dispelling the Illusion of Invulnerability: The Motivations and Mechanisms of Resistance to Persuasion” in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,  83(3), 526-541.

Other relevant articles by Richard Petty

  • Wheeler, S. C., Petty, R. E. & Bizer, G. Y. (2005). Self-Schema Matching and Attitude Change: Situational and Dispositional Determinants of Message Elaboration.  Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 787-797.
  • Tormala, Z. L. & Petty, R. E. (2002). What Doesn't Kill Me Makes Me Stronger: The Effects of Resisting Persuasion on Attitude Certainty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1298-1313.
  • Petty, R. E., Wheeler, S. C., & Bizer, G. Y, (2000) Attitude functions and persuasion: An elaboration likelihood approach to matched versus mismatched messages.  In G. Maio & J. Olson (eds.), Why we evaluate: Functions of attitudes. (pp. 133-162).  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Emotions in persuasion

  • DeSteno, D., Petty, R. E., Rucker, D. D., Wegener, D. T. & Braverman, J.  (2004). Discrete Emotions and Persuasion: The Role of Emotion-Induced Expectancies.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 86(1), 43-56.
  • DeSteno, D., Petty, R. E., Wegener, D. T., & Rucker, D. D. (2000). Beyond Valence in the Perception of Likelihood: The Role of Emotion Specificity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 78(3), 397-416.
  • Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T. &  Sedikides, C. (1988).  Affect and persuasion: A contemporary perspective.  American Behavioral Scientist, 31(3), 355-371.  *Note: this article appears in a special issue of American Behavioral Scientist on the subject of  communication and affect.

Cialdini’s programmed responses

  • Guadagno, R. E., Asher, T., & Demaine, L. J. (2001). When saying yes leads to saying no: Preference for consistency and the reverse foot-in-the-door effect.  Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(7), 859-867.
  • Cialdini, R. B., Trost, M. R. & Newsom, J. T. (1995). Preference for Consistency: The Development of a Valid Measure and the Discovery of Surprising Behavioral Implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(2), 318-328.
  • Cialdini, R. B., Green, B. L. & Rusch, A. J. (1992). When Tactical Pronouncements of Change Become Real Change: The Case of Reciprocal Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 63(1), 30-40.

Feature films

  • Four films that feature masterful manipulation of the peripheral route are Glengarry Glen Ross, The Last Seduction, Body Heat, and Bob Roberts.  These, of course, are in addition to Thank You for Smoking, the film that will be featured in the next chapter on cognitive dissonance.

Ethical reflections

  • For the classical source for the analogy between the lover and the persuader, see Plato's Phaedrus
  • For a discussion that parallels Griffin's “topology of false (unethical) lovers” (228), see Wayne Brockriede, “Arguers as Lovers,” Philosophy and Rhetoric 5 (1972): 1-11. 

Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Chapter 16)

  • For an intriguing application of cognitive dissonance theory to HIV/AIDS prevention, see Perloff, Persuading People to Have Safer Sex: Applications of Social Science to the AIDS Crisis, 82-83. 
  • For other recent work on cognitive dissonance, see :
    • Matz, D. C. & Wood, W. (2005). Cognitive dissonance in groups: The consequences of disagreement.  Journal of Personality And Social Psychology, 88(1), 22-37.
    • Chyng Feng Sun, K. & Scharrer, E. (2004). Staying true to Disney: College students' resistance to criticism of The Little Mermaid. Communication Review, 7 (1), 35-57.
    • Kaplar, M. E. & Gordon, A. K. (2004).  The enigma of altruistic lying: Perspective differences in what motivates and justifies lie telling within romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 11(4), 489-507.
    • Schumacher, J. A. & Slep, Amy M. S. (2004). Attitudes and dating aggression: A cognitive dissonance approach. Prevention Science, 5(4), 231-243.
    • McKimmie, B. M., Terry, D. J., Hogg, M. A., Manstead, A. S. R., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (2003).  I'm a Hypocrite, but So Is Everyone Else: Group Support and the Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance. Group Dynamics, 7(3), 214-224.
  • Shinobu Kitayama, Alana C. Snibbe, and Hazel R. Markus apply cognitive dissonance cross-culturally in their article, “Is There Any ‘Free’ Choice?: Self and Dissonance in Two Cultures,” Psychological Science, 15(8), 2004, 527-533.

Group and Public Communication: Group Communication

Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making (Chapter 17)

  • For additional discussion of the functional perspective, see:
    • Gwen M. Wittenbaum, Andrea B. Hollingshed, and Paul Paulus, “The functional perspective as a lens for understanding groups,” Small Group Research, 35(1), 2004, 17-43.
    • Lise VanderVoort. “Functional and causal explanations in group communication research,” Communication Theory, 12(4), 2002, 469-486.
    • Elizabeth E. Graham et al., “An Applied Test of the Functional Communication Perspective of Small Group Decision-Making,” Southern Communication Journal 62 (Summer 1997): 269-79
    • Kathleen M. Propp and Daniel Nelson, “Problem-Solving Performance in Naturalistic Groups: A Test of the Ecological Validity of the Functional Perspective,” Communication Studies 47 (Spring 1996): 35-45.

Habermas and discourse ethics

  • For further discussion of Habermas, see Karen A. Foss, "Habermas," Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 309-11. 
  • Walter Fisher offers a brief critique of Habermas in Human Communication as Narration, 91-92. 
  • William Rehg’s “Reason and Rhetoric in Habermas’ Theory of Argumentation,” Rhetoric and Hermeneutics in Our Time, ed. Walter Jost and Michael Hyde (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 358-77 comes recommended, as do Craig Calhoun’s collection of essays, Habermas and the Public Sphere (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), Hanns Hohmann’s “Rhetoric in the Public Sphere and the Discourse of Law and Democracy,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (1998): 358-70, and James M. Chriss’s “Habermas, Goffman, and Communicative Action: Implications for Professional Practice,” American Sociological Review 60 (1997): 351-70. 
  • William Fusfield explores Habermas’s relationship to critical theory in “Communication Without Constellation?  Habermas’s Argumentative Turn in (and Away from) Critical Theory,” Communication Theory 7 (November 1997): 301-20. 
  • For application of Habermas’s ethical theory of communication, see Patricia Roberts-Miller, Voices in the Wilderness: Public Discourse and the Paradox of Puritan Rhetoric (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999).

Symbolic Convergence Theory (Chapter 18)

  • For further discussion of Bormann’s work, see Sonja Foss’s fifth chapter on “fantasy-theme criticism” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights: Waveland, 1996). 
  • In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see Bormann, “Fantasy Theme Analysis,” 258-60; and Gary Layne Hatch, “Bormann,” 82-83. 
  • For a provocative book-length application of Bormann’s notion of symbolic convergence to the culture of a small group, see Moya Ann Ball, Vietnam-on-the-Potomac (Westport: Praeger, 1992).  A condensed version of this study is “Vacillating About Vietnam: Secrecy, Duplicity, and Confusion in the Communication of President Kennedy and His Advisors,” Group Communication in Context: Studies of Natural Groups, ed. Lawrence R. Frey (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994), 181-98.  We say more about Ball’s work in our treatment of Griffin’s introduction to group decision making. 
  • One interest piece to read with students is Eleanor Novek’s “‘Heaven, hell, and here’: Understanding the impact of incarceration through a prison newspaper,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, 22(4), 281- 301. In addition to an interesting analysis, students might find it interesting that the text under analysis (a prison newspaper) is produced by inmates.
  • For further application of Bormann’s theory and fantasy theme analysis see:
    • Dawn O. Braithwaite, Paul Schrodt, & Jody Koenig, (2006). “Symbolic convergence theory: Communication, dramatizing messages, and rhetorical visions in families.”  In D. O Braithwaite & L. A. Baxter (Eds.), Engaging Theories in Family Communication (pp. 146- 161).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    • Marambio, J. L. (2006) Clash in Paradise: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of A Day Without a Mexican. Journal of American Culture, 29(4), 475-492.
    • Margaret Duffy (2003), “Web of Hate: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of the Rhetorical Vision of Hate Groups Online.” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 27(3), 291-312.
    • Thomas G. Endres, “Father-Daughter Dramas: A Q-Investigation of Rhetorical Visions,” Journal of Applied Communication Research 25 (November 1997): 317-40.
    • Susan Schultz, “Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimké: Symbolic Convergence and a Nascent Rhetorical Vision,” Communication Quarterly 44 (Winter 1996): 14-28.
    • Margaret Duffy (1997), “High Stakes: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of the Selling of Riverboat Gambling in Iowa,” Southern Communication Journal 62 (Winter): 117-32.
    • Mara B. Adelman and Lawrence Frey, The Fragile Community: Living Together with AIDS (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997).
    • Ernest Bormann, Ellen Bormann, and Kathleen C. Harty, “Using Symbolic Convergence Theory and Focus Group Interviews to Develop Communication Designed to Stop Teenage Use of Tobacco,” Innovations in Group Facilitation: Applications in Natural Settings, ed. Lawrence Frey (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1995), 200-32.
    • Linda Putnam, Shirley A. Van Hoeven, and Connie A. Bullis, “The Role of Rituals and Fantasy Themes in Teachers’ Bargaining,” Western Journal of Speech Communication 55 (1991): 85-103.

Critiques of SCT

  • For a critique of symbolic convergence theory, see Joshua Gunn’s article “Refiguring Fantasy: Imagination and Its Decline in U.S. Rhetorical Studies” in Quarterly Journal of Speech, 89(1), 2003; 41-60.  In the November 2003 issue of Quarterly Journal of Speech 89(4), Bormann, John Cragan, and Donald Shields respond to Gunn’s article (pp. 366-373) followed by a 1-page response from Gunn.
  • Donald Shields marshals symbolic convergence theory to attack a recent form of communication scholarship in “Symbolic Convergence and Special Communication Theories: Sensing and Examining Dis/Enchantment with the Theoretical Robustness of Critical Autoethnogaphy,” Communication Monographs 67 (March 2000): 392-421

Group and Public Communication: Organizational Communication

Cultural Approach to Organizations (Chapter 19)

  • If you enjoy Pacanowsky’s work, we recommend “Postscript: A Small-Town Cop: Communication In, Out, and About a Crisis,” Communication and Organizations: An Interpretive Approach, ed. Linda Putnam and Michael Pacanowsky (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983), 261-82. 
  • Edgar Schein emphasizes the importance of the cultural approach to organizations in “Culture: The Missing Concept in Organizational Studies,” Administrative Science Quarterly 41 (1996): 229-40. 
  • Paul Schrodt provides an empirical examination of the relationship between group and individual identity in “The Relationship Between Organizational Identification and Organizational Culture: Employee Perceptions of Culture and Identification in a Retail Sales Organization,” Communication Studies 53 (Summer 2002): 189-202.
  • As Linda Smircich’s comments suggest, the tension between pragmatically based research and ethnography free of management constraints and agendas is a significant issue in the field of organizational communication.  Nick Trujillo’s “Corporate Philosophy and Professional Baseball: (Re)defining the Texas Rangers,” Case Studies in Organizational Communication, ed. Beverly Davenport Sypher (New York: Guilford, 1990), 87-110, exemplifies the tension.  Although the article is presented as a scholarly case study of the team, it also functions as a public-relations piece for its management, celebrating the efforts of top officers to alter the corporation’s culture.  Trujillo, who co-authored several pieces with Pacanowsky, demonstrates the difficulty of serving two masters.  We particularly recommend this piece for those interested in athletic organizations. 
  • For further discussion of Japanese corporate culture, see Lea P. Stewart, “Organizational Communication in Japan and the United States,” Communication in Japan and the United States, ed. Gudykunst (Albany: State University of New York, 1993), 215-48. 

Organizational Stories

  • For discussion of organizational stories, see:
    • Barbara Czarniawska, Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).
    • John C. Meyer, “Tell Me a Story: Eliciting Organizational Values from Narratives,” Communication Quarterly 43 (1995): 210-24.
    • Linda S. Myrsiades, “Corporate Stories as Cultural Communications in the Organizational Setting,” Management Communication Quarterly 1 (1987): 84-120.

Metaphors  and symbols 

  • For discussion of organizational metaphors and symbols, see:
    • Paul M. Hirsch and John A. Y. Andrews, “Ambushes, Shootouts, and Knights of the Roundtable: The Language of Corporate Takeovers,” Organizational Symbolism, ed. Louis Pondy, Peter Frost, Gareth Morgan, and Thomas Dandridge (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1983), 145-55.
    • Stanley Deetz, “Metaphor and the Discursive Production and Reproduction of Organization,” Organization—Communication: Emerging Perspectives, ed. L. Thayer(Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985), 168-82.
    • Mina A. Vaughn, “Organizational Symbols: An Analysis of Their Types and Functions in a Reborn Organization,” Management Communication Quarterly 9 (1995): 219-50.
    • John Gribas and Cal Downs, “Metaphoric Manifestations of Talking ‘Team’ with Teams and Novices,” Communication Studies 53 (Summer 2002): 112-28.

  Clifford Geertz

  • For articles by Geertz, see:
    • “Shifting aims, moving targets: On the anthropology of religion,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(1), 2005, 1-15.
    • “What was the Third World revolution?” Dissent, 52(1), 2005, 35- 46.
    • “What is a state if it is not a sovereign?” Current Anthropology, 45(5), 577- 594.
  • Keith Windschuttle presents a critique of Geertz’ work in “The ethnocentrism of Clifford Geertz,” New Criterion, 21(2), 5-13.
  • Geertz’s autobiographical piece, “An inconstant profession: The anthropological life in interesting times” provides a summary both of his career and the field of cultural anthropology in general.  Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(1), 2002, 1- 19.
  • Similar to Geertz’ landmark piece on Balinese cockfighting, H. L. “Bud” Goodall Jr. writes about a “poker rally” and the culture of Ferrari owners in his article, “Deep Play in a Poker Rally: A Sunday Among the Ferraristi of Long Island,” Qualitative Inquiry, 10(5), 2004, 731- 767.  In addition to the analysis, Goodall discusses the difficulties associated with narrative ethnography.

Communicative Constitution of Organizations (Chapter 20)

  • Cooren, F. (2006). Arguments for the in-depth study of organizational interactions: A Rejoinder to McPhee, Myers, and Trethewey. Management Communication Quarterly, 19(3), 327-340. doi:10.1177/0893318905280325
  • Myers, K. K. (2010). Workplace relationships and membership negotiation. In , New directions in interpersonal communication research (pp. 135-156). Thousand Oaks, CA US: Sage Publications, Inc.

Applied example of CCO:

  • Izak, M. (2009). Spirituality in organization: a dubious idea (?). Tamara Journal For Critical Organization Inquiry, 8(1/2), 73-88.
  • Iverson, J. O., & McPhee, R. D. (2002). Knowledge management in communities of practice. Management Communication Quarterly, 16(2), 259.
  • Lampe, C., Ellison, N., Vitak, J., Wohn, D., & Wash, R. (2010). Social Sensemaking: Propensity to Use Facebook to Reduce Classroom Equivocality. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association, 1.
  • McPhee, R. D., & Corman, S. R. (1995). An activity-based theory of communication networks in organizations, applied to the case of a local church. Communication Monographs, 62(2), 132-151. doi:10.1080/03637759509376353

Karl Weick and Information System Theory

  • Cummings, S., & Angwin, D. (2011). Stratography: The art of conceptualizing and communicating strategy. Business Horizons, 54(5), 435-446. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.04.00
  • Kopp, D. M., Nikolovska, I., Desiderio, K. P., & Guterman, J. T. (2011). 'Relaaax, I remember the recession in the early 1980s ...': Organizational storytelling as a crisis management tool. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22(3), 373-385. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20067
  • Leybourne, S. A. (2010). Improvisation as a Way of Dealing with Ambiguity and Complexity. Graziadio Business Report, 13(3), 1-7
  • Maitlis, S., & Sonenshein, S. (2010). Sensemaking in Crisis and Change: Inspiration and Insights From Weick (1988). Journal Of Management Studies, 47(3), 551-580. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00908.x
  • Weick, K. E. (2010). Reflections on Enacted Sensemaking in the Bhopal Disaster. Journal Of Management Studies, 47(3), 537-550. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00900.x

Discussion of Organization Communication theory more generally:

  • Holmström, J., & Truex, D. (2011). Dropping Your Tools: Exploring When and How Theories Can Serve as Blinders in IS Research. Communications Of The Association For Information Systems, 28283-294.
  • McPhee, R. D., & Zaug, P. (2001). Organizational Theory, Organizational Communication, Organizational Knowledge, and Problematic Integration. Journal Of Communication, 51(3), 574.
  • Sillince, J. A. (2010). Can CCO theory tell us how organizing is distinct from markets, networking, belonging to a community, or supporting a social movement?. Management Communication Quarterly, 24(1), 132-138. doi:10.1177/0893318909352022

Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations (Chapter 21)

Recent writings by Deetz
Deetz is a very prolific writer.  Just a sampling of his recent works include:

  • Deetz, S. (2008). Resistance: Would struggle by any other name be as sweet? Management Communication Quarterly, 21(3), 387-392.Deetz, S. & Hegbloom, M. (2007).  Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies, 4(3), 323-326.
  • Heath, R. L., Pearce, W. B., Shotter, J., Taylor, J. R., Kersten, A., Zorn, T., Roper, J., Motion, J. & Deetz, S.(2006). 
  • Deetz, S. & McPherson, J.  (2005).  The role of communication scholars in facilitating organizational change.  In P. Shockley and J. Simpson (eds.), Engaging communication:  Informing work and transforming organizations.  Cresskill, NJ:  Hampton Press.
  • Deetz, S. (2004).  Critical theory.  In S. May and D. Mumby (eds.), Engaging organizational communication theory:  Multiple perspectives. (pp. 85- 112). Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage. Expected spring 2004.
  • Deetz, S.  & Simpson. J.  (2004).  Critical organizational dialogue:  Open formation and the demand of “otherness.”  In R. Anderson, L. Baxter, & K. Cissna (eds.) Dialogic approaches to communication (pp. 141-158)New York:  Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Deetz, S.  & Brown, D. (2004). Conceptualising involvement, participation and workplace decision processes: A communication theory perspective.  In D. Tourish & O. Hargie (eds.), Key issues in organizational communication (pp. 172-187).  London: Routledge.
  • Haas, T. & Deetz, S. (2004).  The politics and ethics of knowledge construction in corporations:  Dialogic interaction and self-other relations.  In P. Jeffcutt (ed.), The foundations of management knowledge (pp. 208-230).London:  Routledge.
  • Deetz, S. (2003).  Corporate governance, communication, and getting social values into the decisional chain.  Management Communication Quarterly, 16: 606-11.
  • Deetz, S.  (2003).  Taking the “linguistic turn” seriously. Organization: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Organization, Theory, and Society, 10: 421-29.

For a succinct summary of pragmatism, see Steven Mailloux, “Pragmatism,” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 552.  For those interested in West's position on racial issues, we recommend Race Matters (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993).

Group and Public Communication: Public Rhetoric

The Rhetoric (Chapter 22)

  • Three general resources on Aristotle's rhetoric and its context are:
    • George Kennedy, The Art of Persuasion in Ancient Greece (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), 82-114;
    • Thomas Conley, Rhetoric in the European Tradition, 13-17;
    • Janet M. Atwill, “Aristotle,” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 26-30. 
  • Sonja Foss discusses and exemplifies “Neo-Aristotelian criticism” in the third chapter of Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice
  • For a recent critique of Aristotle, see Jasper Neel, Aristotle's Voice: Rhetoric, Theory, and Writing in America (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994). 
  • Thomas Farrell's study The Norms of Rhetorical Culture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993) demonstrates the relevance of Aristotelian principles to contemporary culture. 
  • Also in the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see:
    • Nan Johnson, “Ethos,” 243-45;
    • Joseph Colavito, “Pathos,” 492-94;
    • George E. Yoos, “Logos,” 410-14;
    • John T. Kirby, “Greek Rhetoric,” 299-306.


  • T. Gage, “Enthymeme,” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 223-25, and “The Reasoned Thesis: The E-word and Argumentative Writing as a Process of Inquiry,” Argument Revisited; Argument Redefined: Negotiating Meaning in the Composition Classroom, 3-18;
  • Jeffrey Walker, “The Body of Persuasion,” College English 56 (1994): 46-65.  Walker's essay is particularly relevant because it pulls examples from Barthes' essay “The World of Wrestling,” which is featured by Griffin in Chapter 25.  

Martin Luther King Jr.

  • Keith D. Miller, Voice of Deliverance: The Language of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Its Sources (New York: The Free Press, 1992);
  • Richard Lischer, The Preacher King: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Words That Moved America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); and
  • Richard Fulkerson, “The Public Letter as a Rhetorical Form: Structure, Logic, and Style in King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail’,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 121-36. 
  • In his thorough anthology, American Rhetorical Discourse, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1995), Ronald F. Reid provides an authoritative text of and useful commentary on King's speech, “I Have a Dream” (777-83). 
  • If you're looking for other arguments by King for analysis, we heartily recommend two pieces written for white audiences representing formidable rhetorical challenges:  “A Letter from Birmingham Jail”; and “Love, Law, and Civil Disobedience,” a speech delivered to the Fellowship of the Concerned in 1961, which is anthologized in Contemporary American Speeches: A Sourcebook of Speech Forms and Principles, 2nd ed., ed. Wil A Linkugel, R. R. Allen, and Richard L. Johannesen (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1969), 63-75. 

Sophistic rhetoric

  • Edward Schiappa, “Sophistic Rhetoric,” and J. Clarke Roundtree, “Sophist,” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 682-86;
  • Edward Schiappa, “Gorgias’s Helen Revisited,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (August 1995): 310-24;
  • Edward Schiappa, The Beginnings of Rhetorical Theory in Classical Greece (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999); Susan Jarratt, Rereading the Sophists (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991).

Dramatism (Chapter 23)

There seems to be an entire industry of Burke scholarship, and comprehensive bibliographies are daunting.  Here, we’ll offer a “short list” of selections. 

  • For a little inspiration and sensible advice about the “overwhelming” nature of Burke’s theory, we offer Arthur Quinn’s brief piece, “Teaching Burke: Kenneth Burke and the Rhetoric of Assent,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 25 (1995): 231-36.  Those with an interest in intellectual history will appreciate Quinn’s effort to place Burke within the larger tradition of Western thought. 
  • Joseph R. Gusfield’s “Introduction” to his collection of essays entitled Kenneth Burke on Symbols and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago P, 1989, 1-49) is a solid reference.
  • Thomas Conley provides an insightful survey of Burke’s work in Rhetoric in the European Tradition, 268-77. 
  • Sonja Foss presents examples of pentadic criticism in the eleventh chapter of Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice
  • A classic book-length study of Burke’s theory is William Rueckert, Kenneth Burke and the Drama of Human Relations, 2nd ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982). 
  • Other treatments include Wendell Harris, “The Critics Who Made Us: Kenneth Burke,” Sewanee Review 96 (1988): 452-63.
  • Paul Jay, “Kenneth Burke,” Dictionary of Literary Biography, Vol. 63: Modern American Critics, 1920-1955, ed. Gregory S. Jay (Detroit: Gale, 1988), 67-86. 
  • John F. Cragan and Donald C. Shields apply dramatism in Symbolic Theories in Applied Communication Research: Bormann, Burke, and Fisher (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1995), 61-89, 199-233.  
  • For discussion of the pedagogical implications of Burke’s dark side, see Ellen Quandahl’s “‘It’s Essentially as Though This Were Killing Us’: Kenneth Burke on Mortification and Pedagogy,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 27 (Winter 1999): 5-22. 
  • For Burke’s legendary analysis of Hitler’s rhetoric, see “The Rhetoric of Hitler’s ‘Battle,’“ The Philosophy of Literary Form (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1941), 191-220. 
  • For a good analysis of Burke’s comic mode that sheds additional light on the issues raised in his enigmatic definition of man, see James L. Kasterly, “Kenneth Burke’s Comic Rejoinder to the Cult of Empire,” College English 58 (March 1996): 307-26.  

Edited Collections

  • Bernard L. Brock has edited a  collection of essays on Burke entitled Kenneth Burke and the 21st Century (Albany: Statue University of New York Press, 1999) that consider topics such as feminism, postmodernism, and multiculturalism. 
  • In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see Tilly Warnock, “Burke,” 90-92; Bill Bridges, “Terministic Screens,” 722-23, and “Pentad,” 499-501; James W. Chesebro, “Dramatism,” 200-01; Pat Youngdahl and Tilly Warnock, “Identification,” 337-40; H. L. Ewbank, “Symbolic Action,” 710-11. 
  • For a special issue on Burke, see Southern Communication Journal 61.1 (1995). 
  • James W. Chesebro has edited a collection of essays entitled Extensions of the Burkeian System (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1993). 

Applications of Burke’s theory

  • For intriguing applications of Burke’s theory, see:
    • David Ling, “A Pentadic Analysis of Senator Edward Kennedy’s Address to the People of Massachusetts,” Central States Speech Journal 21 (1970): 81-86.
    • Dean Scheibel, “‘Making Waves’ with Burke: Surf Nazi Culture and the Rhetoric of Localism,” Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 253-69.
    • Richard Bello, “A Burkeian Analysis of the ‘Political Correctness’ Confrontation in Higher Education,” Southern Communication Journal 61 (1996): 243-52. 
    • For a study that applies the Burkeian concept of “identification” to American tourism, see Gregory Clark’s Rhetorical Landscapes in America: Variations on a Theme from Kenneth Burke (Columbia: U South Carolina P, 2004).

Malcolm X and prophetic rhetoric

  • For additional analysis of Malcolm X’s rhetorical practice, see Michael Eric Dyson, Making Malcolm: The Myth and the Meaning of Malcolm X (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 
  • For a general discussion of prophetic rhetoric and the jeremiadic persona, see:
    • James Darsey, The Prophetic Tradition and Radical Rhetoric in America (New York: New York University Press, 1997.
    • Margaret Zulick, “The Agon of Jeremiah: On the Dialogic Invention of Prophetic Ethos,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 78 (1992): 125-48. 
    • On the importance of the jeremiadic persona to American rhetoric, see Sacvan Berkcovitch, The American Jeremiad (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978). 
    • Building on Berkcovitch’s work, David Howard-Pitney’s The Afro-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990) demonstrates specific cultural features of African-American rhetoric.  Notably, Howard-Pitney examines Martin Luther King’s use of radical jeremiadic rhetoric, which can help emphasize elements of King’s ethos that challenge a strictly Aristotelian reading of his discourse. 

Narrative Paradigm (Chapter 24)

  • Other significant works written by Fisher not mentioned by Griffin include:
    • “The Narrative Paradigm and the Interpretation and the Assessment of Historical Texts,” Argumentation and Advocacy 25 (1988): 50-53
    • “Narration, Knowledge, and the Possibility of Wisdom,” Rethinking Knowledge: Reflections Across the Disciplines, ed. Robert F. Goodman and Walter Fisher (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), 169-92. 
  • Sonja Foss’s coverage of “narrative criticism” in Chapter 10 of Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice moves beyond Fisher, broadening the scope and complexity of the theory. 
  • In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see Elizabeth Patnoe and James Phelan, “Narrative Theory,” 454-57; John Stewart, “Fisher,” 272. 
  • For an additional critique of Fisher’s paradigm, see Dennis D. Cali, “Chiari Lubich’s 1977 Templeton Prize Acceptance Speech: Case Study in the Mystical Narrative,” Communication Studies 44 (1993): 132-43. 
  • John Cragan and Donald Shields apply Fisher’s narrative paradigm in Symbolic Theories in Applied Communication Research: Bormann, Burke, and Fisher, 91-122, 235-67. 
  • For an intriguing application of narrative theory to the field of economics, see Deidre McCloskey, If You’re So Smart: The Narrative of Economic Expertise (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). 
  • Alan J. Bush and Victoria Davies Bush apply the narrative paradigm to advertising in “The Narrative Paradigm as a Prescriptive for Improving Ethical Evaluations of Advertisements,“ Journal of Advertising 23 (September 1994): 31-41. 
  • For a thoughtful study that also places great stock in the power of “good reasons,” see Wayne Booth, Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric of Assent (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974). 
  • For further information on the concept of the discourse community, see M. Jimmie Killingsworth, “Discourse Community,” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, 194-96. 
  • The consistently refreshing Arthur Asa Burger applies narrative theory to contemporary contexts in Narrative in Popular Culture, Media, and Everyday Life (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1997). 
  • Finally, a wonderful book on narrative theory is Wayne Booth’s Rhetoric of Fiction, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983).

Mass Communication: Media and Culture

Media Ecolgy (Chapter 25)

  • McLuhan fans may enjoy a book that he coauthored with son Eric McLuhan entitled Laws of Media: The New Science (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988). 
  • For a treatment of McLuhan's contribution to rhetorical theory, see Craig R. Smith, Rhetoric and Human Consciousness: A History, 355-62. 

Neil Postman

  • For other work by Neil Postman, see his provocative tirade Amusing Ourselves to Death (New York: Penguin, 1986), which seeks to expose the strong entertainment bias inherent in the technology of television. Postman’s chapter on televangelism—“Shuffle Off to Bethlehem” (114-24)—develops themes similar to those featured by Malcolm Muggeridge.  No doubt Postman overstates his case, but the book is highly readable and very convincing in places. 
  • Roderick Hart’s Seducing America: How Television Charms the Modern Voter (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994) discusses television’s deleterious effect on American politics.  For additional discussion of related political issues, see Jeffery B. Abramson, F. Christopher Arterton, and Gary Orren, The Electronic Commonwealth: The Impact of New Media Technologies on Democratic Politics (New York: Basic Books, 1988); special issue on “Electronic Democracy,” Media, Culture & Society 18.2 (1996). 
  • A particularly scholarly treatment of the history of communication technology (in the tradition of Walter Ong) is Ronald J. Deiberts Parchment, Printing, and Hypermedia: Communication in World Order Transformation (New York: University of Columbia Press, 1997). 
  • Barbara Warnick takes a rhetorical approach to theoretical issues of the Internet in “Rhetorical Criticism of Public Discourse on the Internet: Theoretical Implications,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 28 (Fall 1998): 73-84.  She has also produced a full-length treatment of rhetoric and technology entitled Critical Literacy in a Digital Era: Technology, Rhetoric, and the Public Interest (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002) and review essay on the relationship between argument and new media: “Analogues to Argument: New Media and Literacy in a Posthuman Era,” Argument and Advocacy (Spring 2002): 262-70. 
  • For recent discussion of the concept of the “global village,“ see Raymond Gozzi, Jr., “Will the Media Create a Global Village?” Et cetera 53 (1996): 65-68; Michael Antecol, “Understanding McLuhan: Television and the Creation of the Global Village,” Et cetera 54 (Winter 1997): 454-73. 
  • In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see Stephen A. Bernhardt, “Electronic Rhetoric,” 209-11; Bruce E. Gronbeck, “McLuhan,” 428-29. 

Computer effects

  • For discussion of information technology and the computers effect on communication, see:
    •  Alan L. Porter and William H. Read, The Information Revolution: Current and Future Consequences (Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 1998);
    • Nick Heap et al., eds. Information Technology and Society: A Reader (London: Sage, 1995);
    • Nicolas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York Alfred A. Knopf, 1995);
    • David Slayden and Rita Kirk Whillock, Soundbite Culture: The Death of Discourse in a Wired World (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999);
    • Tom Koch, The Message is the Medium: Online All the Time for Everyone (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996);
    • Kevin A. Hill and John E. Hughs, Cyberpolitics: Citizen Activism in the Age of the Internet (Lanham: Rowan & Littlefield, 1998)
  • For an excellent study of the influence of print, see David S. Kaufer and Kathleen M. Carley, Communication at a Distance: The Influence of Print on Sociocultural Organization and Change (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993). 
  • Science fiction aficionados may enjoy Adrienne L. McLean’s “Media Effects: Marshall McLuhan, Television Culture, and The X-Files,” Film Quarterly 51 (Summer 1998): 2-11. 

Literary resources

  • Gore Vidal’s anachronistic novel Live From Golgotha (New York: Random House, 1992) explores the media’s relationship with religion. 

Semiotics (Chapter 26)

  • An excellent supplementary text for this chapter is Jonathan Bignells Media Semiotics: An Introduction (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997). 
  • A good source for articles on semiotics is the American Journal of Semiotics
  • Beyond the works cited by Griffin in the Second Look section of the text, see the Encyclopedia of Semiotics, ed. Paul Bouissac (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998). 
  • Terence Hawkes’s eminently readable Structuralism and Semiotics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977) has a useful section on Barthes (106-22). 
  • In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see James S. Baumlin, “Barthes,” 66-67; Catherine Lappas, “Signified/Signifier/Signifying,” 673; Sue Hum, “Semiotics,” 666-67. 
  • Although Michael Eric Dysons chapter “Be Like Mike? Michael Jordan and the Pedagogy of Desire” in Reflecting Black: African-American Cultural Criticism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993) does not specifically refer to Barthes, his analysis of Jordans media image as a marketable product connects to the ideas presented in this chapter. 

General discussion of semiotics

  • “Semiotics, Poetry,” The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics, 1138-43
  • Kaja Silverman, The Subject of Semiotics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983). 

Applications of Barthes

  • For an intriguing political application of Barthes’ theory, see Anne Norton’s chapter-length study, “The President as Sign,” in her book Republic of Signs: Liberal Theory and American Popular Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 87-121. 
  • Mark P. Orbe uses semiotics to analyze how African-American cast members are signified on the television show The Real World in “Constructions of Reality on MTV’s The Real World: An Analysis of the Restrictive Coding of Black Masculinity,” Southern Communication Journal 64 (Fall 1998): 32-47. 

Cultural Studies (Chapter 27)

  • Chris Rojek’s 2003 book Stuart Hall offers a critical perspective on Hall as a theorist and as a critic of cultural.
  • Cultural studies is extremely popular and influential these days, and there is much of interest to read.  Two extremely accessible introductory texts are:
    •  Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, ed. Stuart Hall (London: Sage, 1997).
    • Paul Du Gay et al., Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman (London: Sage, 1997). 
  • Douglas Kellner provides an excellent supplement to Griffin’s chapter in “Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism and Media Culture,” Gender, Race and Class Media: A Text-Reader, ed. Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1996), 5-17.  Kellner’s full-length text Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern (London: Routledge, 1995) is packed with provocative examples. 
  • For a critical approach to the relationship between ideology and communication that includes analyses of the positions of Hall, Geertz, and Habermas, see Dennis K. Mumby, “Ideology and the Social Construction of Meaning: A Communication Perspective,” Communication Quarterly 37 (Fall 1989): 291-304. 
  • For a hypothesized next stage of cultural studies, see Scott Lash, “Power after hegemony: Cultural studies in mutation?” Culture & Society, 24(3), 2007: 55-78.
  • John Fiske develops his ideas about resistant consumers of media in Television Culture (London: Methuen, 1987), Reading the Popular (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989), and Media Matters: Everyday Culture and Political Change (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994). 
  • Mary Ellen Brown takes a position similar to Fiske’s in Soap Operas and Women’s Talk: The Pleasure of Resistance (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994).  See also Tony Dowmunt, ed., Channels of Resistance: Global Television and Local Empowerment (London: British Film Institute, 1993). 
  • Television Studies: Key Concepts (London: Routledge, 2002), by Bernadette Casey et al., introduces many media concepts from a cultural studies perspective. 
  • Cultural Politics in Contemporary America (New York: Routledge, 1989), a collection of essays edited by Ian H. Angus and Sut Jhally, is filled with provocative pieces that relate to the subjects raised in this chapter. 
  • Michael Parenti develops arguments similar to Hall’s in Inventing Reality: The Politics of News Media, 2nd ed. (New York: St. Martin’s, 1993) and Make-Believe Media: The Politics of Entertainment (New York: St. Martin’s, 1992). 
  • A brief but insightful comparison of cultural studies and rhetoric is offered by Walter H. Beale in “Rhetoric in the Vortex of Cultural Studies,” Rhetoric in the Vortex of Cultural Studies: Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Conference (St. Paul: Rhetoric Society of America, 1992), 1-22. 
  • A more cautious, yet nonetheless sinister critique of the economic realities behind the media is Ben Bagdikian’s masterful The Media Monopoly, 6th ed. (Boston: Beacon Press, 2000), which links the intellectual decline of the American newspaper industry to inevitable economic pressures.  Bagdikian does not fit neatly into Hall’s camp, but his effort to demonstrate the ways in which the business decisions of the economic elite limit the diversity of news coverage falls into the larger category of economic determinism.  Bagdikian has produced a new study that updates his position on these issues entitled The New Media Monopoly (Boston: Beacon Press, 2004)
  • Barbara Ehrenreich’s book, Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America (2001: Metropolitan Books) describes the experience of living on minimum wage in America.  While not strictly out of a cultural studies perspective, it provides a fascinating account of trying to work at the bottom of the hierarchy.  Her follow-up, Bait and switch: The (futile) pursuit of the American dream (2005: Metropolitan Books), shows the grim side of the white-collar existence. 

Additional sources from Hall

  • The Media Education Foundation distributes a video production of an accessible lecture by Stuart Hall entitled Stuart Hall: Representation and the Media
  • Hall glosses the concepts of polysemy and pluralism in his frequently anthologized and referenced essay, “Encoding/Decoding,” Culture, Media, Language, ed. Hall et al. (London: Unwin Hyman, 1980), 128-38.  This essay is dense, but very useful and appropriate for undergraduates.
  • Other pieces by Hall include the 1997 edited collection, Representations: Cultural representations and signifying practices. (London: Sage), The Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis on the Left (London: Verso, 1988), and “Ferment in the Field,” Journal of Communication 33.3 (1983). 

Cultural studies analyses

  • Other helpful books include:
    • Paul duGay, (1997). Doing cultural studies: The story of the Sony Walkman  (London: Sage Publications).
    • Kathryn Woodward (1997). Identity and difference  (London: Sage).
  • In the area of sports coverage and capitalist ideology, we recommend sociologist Dan Hiliard’s illuminating article, “Televised Sport and the (Anti) Sociological Imagination,” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 18 (1994): 88-99. 
  • For an intriguing critical analysis of country music, see Charles Conrad, “Work Songs, Hegemony, and Illusions of Self,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 5 (1988): 179-201. 
  • Laurie Ouellette performs a cultural studies analysis of Cosmopolitan in “Inventing the Cosmo Girl: Class Identity and Girl-Style American Dreams,” Media, Culture & Society 21 (1999): 359-83. 
  • John Berger’s legendary Ways of Seeing (Penguin, 1972), which innovatively mixes art criticism, Marxism, and media advertising, paints the capitalist hegemony of Western culture most provocatively. 
  • Richard Campbell’s 60 Minutes and the News: A Mythology for Middle America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991) argues that even television programming that purports to reveal the truth about the American power structure does little to unmask dominant mythologies and ideologies. 
  • For a fascinating study of the ways romance novels are read by American women, see Janice A. Radway, Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984). 
  • Naomi Rockler argues that despite optimism over oppositional readings, audiences of Beverly Hills, 90210 actually receive hegemonic messages in “From Magic Bullets to Shooting Blanks: Reality, Criticism, and Beverly Hills, 90210,Western Journal of Communication 63 (Winter 1999): 72-94.  This article also offers insightful commentary on—and some support for—the “hypodermic needle” model, discussed in the upcoming media effects introduction. 
  • Dana Cloud offers a cultural studies critique of the rhetoric of the Clinton administration in “The Rhetoric of <Family Values> : Scapegoating, Utopia, and the Privatization of Social Responsibility,” Western Journal of Communication 62 (Fall 1998): 387-419. 
  • Tamar Liebes presents a full-length case study of how hegemony is manifest in the everyday workings of the media in Reporting the Arab-Israeli Conflict: How Hegemony Works (London: Routledge, 1997). 

Cultural hegemony

  • For further discussion of cultural hegemony, see:
    • Benjamin Barber, Jihad Vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism Are Reshaping the World (New York: Random, 1995)
    • Arthur Asa Berger, Manufacturing Desire: Media, Popular Culture, and Everyday Life (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1996).

Mass Communication: Media Effects

Uses and Gratifications (Chapter 28)

General applications

  • Cortese, J., & Rubin, A. M. (2010). Uses and Gratifications of Television Home Shopping. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 18(2), 89-109.
  • Drumheller, K. (2005). Millennial Dogma: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of the Millennial Generation’s Uses and Gratifications of Religious Content Media. Journal of Communication & Religion, 28(1), 47-70.
  • Keaten, J. A., & Kelly, L. (2008). “Re: We Really Need to Talk”: Affect for Communication Channels, Competence, and Fear of Negative Evaluation. Communication Quarterly, 56(4), 407-426.
  • Tustin, N. (2010). The Role of Patient Satisfaction in Online Health Information Seeking. Journal of Health Communication, 15(1), 3-17.
  • Wang, Q., Fink, E. L., & Cai, D. A. (2008). Loneliness, Gender, and Parasocial Interaction: A Uses and Gratifications Approach. Communication Quarterly, 56(1), 87-109.

Facebook, MySpace/ Social Networking Usage

  • Chung, M., & Kim, H. (2009). It Looks So Cool to Use Podcast!: Exploring Motivations, Gratifications, and Attitudes Toward Using Podcasts Among College Students. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association, 1-41.
  • Quan-Haase, A., & Young, A. L. (2010). Uses and Gratifications of Social Media: A Comparison of Facebook and Instant Messaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 30(5), 350-361.
  • Sheldon, P. (2008). Student favorite: Facebook and motives for its use. Southwestern Mass Communication Journal, 23(2), 39-53.
  • Urista, M. A., Qingwen, D., & Day, K. D. (2009). Explaining Why Young Adults Use MySpace and Facebook Through Uses and Gratifications Theory. Human Communication, 12(2), 215-229.
Uses and grats in sports
  • Clavio, G., & Kian, T. M. (2010). Uses and Gratifications of a Retired Female Athlete's Twitter Followers. International Journal Of Sport Communication, 3(4), 485-500.
  • Earnheardt, A. C. & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). Exploring fandom and motives for viewing television sports.  In L.W. Hugenberg, P.M. Haridakis, & A. C. Earnheardt (Eds.). Sports mania: Essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century. (pp. 158-171).  Jefferson, NC: McFarland.   
  • Frederick, E. L., Choong Hoon, L., Clavio, G., & Walsh, P. (2012). Why We Follow: An Examination of Parasocial Interaction and Fan Motivations for Following Athlete Archetypes on Twitter. International Journal Of Sport Communication, 5(4), 481-502.
  • Hambrick, M. E., Simmons, J. M., Greenhalgh, G. P., & Greenwell, T. (2010). Understanding Professional Athletes' Use of Twitter: A Content Analysis of Athlete Tweets. International Journal Of Sport Communication, 3(4), 454-471.3
  • Spinda, J. S. W. (2012). From good ol' boys to national spectacle: Motives and identification among young NASCAR fans. In A. C. Earnheardt, P. M. Haridakis & B. S. Hugenberg (Eds.), Sports fans, identity, and socialization: Exploring the fandemonium (pp. 177-189). Lanham: Lexington Books.
  • Spinda, J. S.W. & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). Exploring the motives of fantasy sports: A uses-and-gratifications approach.  In L.W. Hugenberg, P.M. Haridakis, & A. C. Earnheardt (Eds.). Sports mania: Essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century. (pp. 187-202).  Jefferson, NC: McFarland.   
  • Yongjae, K., & Ross, S. D. (2006). An exploration of motives in sport video gaming. International Journal Of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 8(1), 34-46.

Online gaming

  • Jansz, J., Avis, C., & Vosmeer, M. (2010). Playing The Sims2: an exploration of gender differences in players’ motivations and patterns of play. New Media & Society, 12(2), 235-251.
  • Wu, J., Wang, S., & Tsai, H. (2010). Falling in love with online games: The uses and gratifications perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1862-1871.

Phones, Blogs, and New Media

  • Chen, G. (2011). Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 755-762.
  • Ferguson, D. A., Greer, C. F., & Reardon, M. E. (2007). Uses and Gratifications of MP3 Players by College Students: Are iPods More Popular than Radio?. Journal of Radio Studies, 14(2), 102-121.
  • Kaye, B. K. (2010). Going to the Blogs: Toward the Development of a Uses and Gratifications Measurement Scale for Blogs. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 18(4), 194-210.
  • Wei, R. (2008). Motivations for using the mobile phone for mass communications and entertainment. Telematics & Informatics, 25(1), 36-46.
  • Wei, F., & Wang, Y. (2010). Students’ Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?, Communication Education, 59(4), 475-496.

Cross-cultural applications

  • Wang, Y., Sun, S., & Haridakis, P. M. (2009). INTERNET USE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION: Testing a Model of Internet Use in the Cross-Cultural Adaptation Context. Journal of Intercultural Communication, (20), 8.

Politics and civic life

  • Coleman, R., Lieber, P., Mendelson, A. L., & Kurpius, D. D. (2008). Public life and the internet: if you build a better website, will citizens become engaged?, New Media & Society, 10(2), 179-201.
  • Hanson, G., Haridakis, P., Cunningham, A., Sharma, R., & Ponder, J. D. (2010). The 2008 Presidential Campaign: Political Cynicism in the Age of Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube. Mass Communication & Society, 13(5), 584-607.

Cultivation Theory (Chapter 29)

  • Ellen Wartella takes up the issue of television violence in her 1996 Carroll Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “The Context of Television Violence” (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997), as does James T. Hamilton in his book-length study Channeling Violence: The Economic Market for Violent Television Programming (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998). 
  • Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research dedicated its September 2004 (Vol. 29(3), Jan Van Den Bulck, ed.) special issue to current developments in cultivation research.

Cultivation theory research and application

  • For further discussion of cultivation research, see Nancy Signorielli and Michael Morgan, eds., Cultivation Analysis: New Directions in Media Effects Research (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990). 
  • Jon Hammermeister, Barbara Brock, David Winterstein, and Randy Page explore the health benefits of light television viewing in their article, “Life Without TV? Cultivation Theory and Psychosocial Health Characteristics of Television-Free Individuals and Their Television-Viewing Counterparts,” Health Communication, 17(3), 2005, 253-265.
  • Jennifer Good examined why television viewing hasn’t affected our view of the environment in her 2007 article, “Shop 'til We Drop? Television, Materialism and Attitudes About the Natural Environment.” Mass Communication & Society, 10(3), 365-383.
  • Very much in keeping with the conclusion of cultivation theory, Kahlor and Morrison reported that television consumers were much more likely to accept myths about rape as true and doubt the veracity of rape accusations. For further information, see LeeAnn Kahlor and Dan Morrison, “Television viewing and rape myth acceptance among college women”, Sex Roles, 6(11/12), 729-739.
  • For a look at the influence of online gaming, see Dmitri Williams’ 2006 article, “Virtual cultivation: Online worlds, offline perceptions.”  Journal of Communication, 56(1), 69- 87.
  • In their article, “Examining Effects of Television News Violence on College Students through Cultivation Theory,” Meridith Diane Lett, Andrea Lynn DiPietro, and Danetter Ifert Johnson explore the effects of watching varied amounts of news coverage after 9/11. Communication Research Reports, 21(1), 2004, 39-47.
  • For a look at the effects of watching local news, see Daniel Romer, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, and Sean Aday, “Television News and the Cultivation of Fear of Crime, Journal of Communication, 53(1), 2003, 88- 105.
  • James Rada address sports programming in his 1996 article, “Color blind-sided: Racial bias in network television’s coverage of professional football games” Howard Journal of Communications, 7(3), 231- 240.
  • For an intriguing application of Gerbner's cultivation theory, see Beth Olson, “Soaps, Sex, and Cultivation,” Mass Communication Review 21 (1994): 106-13. 
  • Amy I. Nathanson introduces additional variables into the cultivation equation in “Identifying and Explaining the Relationship Between Parental Mediation and Children’s Aggression,” Communication Research 26 (April 1999): 124-143. 
  • In “Cultivation Revisited: Some Genres Have Some Effects on Some Viewers,” Communication Reports 13 (Summer 2000): 99-114, Jonathan Cohen and Gabriel Weiman present a study designed “both to limit and strengthen the notion of TV cultivation by increasing the specificity of cultivation theory” (113). 

Critiques and contrasting opinions of cultivation theory

  • Markus Appel suggests that television viewing may actually make the world seem more fair and justice in his 2008 article, “Fictional narratives cultivate just-world belief” Journal of Communication, 58(1), 62- 83.
  • W. James Potter offers additional critique of cultivation theory in “The Linearity Assumption in Cultivation Research,” Communication Research 17 (1991): 562-83, “Cultivation Theory and Research: A Conceptual Critique,” Human Communication Research 19 (1993): 564-601. 
  • For a view that contrasts sharply with Gerbner's, see David Link, “Facts About Fiction: In Defense of TV Violence,” Reason 25 (March 1994): 22-26. 

Film resources

  • We also recommend the Frontline documentary Does TV Kill? (distributed by PBS Video), which takes up Gerbner’s mean world syndrome and features the media research program at the Annenberg School for Communication. li>

Agenda-Setting Theory (Chapter 30)

  • For additional coverage of media ethics, see Clifford Christians, Kim B. Rotzoll, and Mark Fackler, Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning, 3rd ed. (New York: Longman, 1991). 
  • For additional discussion of agenda setting, see:
    • Marcus Brewster and Maxwell McCombs, “Setting the Community Agenda,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 73 (1996): 7-16
    • Jian-Hua Zhu and Deborah Blood, “Media Agenda-Setting Theory: Telling the Public What to Think About,” Emerging Theories of Human Communication, 88-114.
  • James Fallows’s Breaking the News: How the Media Undermine American Democracy (New York: Pantheon Books, 1996) is an intriguing treatment of the drawbacks of the media’s current “agenda.”  Fallows speaks as a practitioner, rather than a theorist, but his analysis intelligently complements the work of McCombs and Shaw.

Agenda-setting and politics

  • Natalie Jomini Stroud and Kate Kenski (2007).  From agenda setting to refusal setting.  Public Opinion Quarterly, 71(4),  539-559.
  • Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12(2), 44-62.
  • John C. Tedesco, “Issue and Strategy Agenda Setting in the 2004 Presidential Election: exploring the candidate–journalist relationship,” Journalism Studies, 6(2), 2005, 187- 202.
  • William L. Benoit, Glenn J. Hansen, and Rebecca M. Verser, “A Meta-analysis of the Effects of Viewing U.S. Presidential Debates,” Communication Monographs, 70(4), 2003, 335-351.
  • Frederick Fico and Eric Freedman, “Setting the Agenda: Candidates and Commentators in News Coverage of the Governor’s Race,” Journal and Mass Communication Quarterly 78 (Autumn 2001): 437-49.
  • Guy Golan and Wayne Wanta, “Second-Level Agenda Setting in the New Hampshire Primary: A Comparison of Coverage in Three Newspapers and Public Perceptions of Candidates,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 78 (Summer 2001): 247-59.
  • Thomas P. Boyle, “Intermediate Agenda Setting in the 1996 Presidential Election,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 78 (Spring 2001): 26-44.
  • Marilyn Roberts, Ronald Anderson, and Maxwell McCombs, “1990 Texas Gubernatorial Campaign: Influence of Issues and Images,” Mass Communication Review 21 (1994): 20-35.
  • One of the most famous political statements about the agenda-setting function of the media is Spiro Agnew’s “Television News Coverage,” published in Vital Speeches of the Day (December 1, 1969), 98-101.  Focusing on recent news coverage of Nixon’s handling of the war in Indochina, the Vice President argued that the liberal media elite unfairly influence both what Americans think about (agenda setting) and how they think about it (framing).  Somewhat ironically, Agnew’s successful attack on the press’s power demonstrated a very different point—the ability of politicians and their spin doctors to use media outlets to shape public opinion. 

Issues of race and culture

  • Susan Weill and Laura Castañeda, "Emphathetic Rejectionism" and Inter-ethnic Agenda Setting: coverage of Latinos by the Black press in the American South,” Journalism Studies, 5(4), 2004, 537- 551.
  • Randy E. Miller and Wayne Wanta, “Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 73 (Winter 1996): 913-25.
  • Wayne Wanta, Guy Golan, and Clseolhan, Lee, “Agenda setting and international news: Media influence on public perceptions of foreign nations,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 2004, 364- 378.
  • For further discussion of agenda setting in cross-cultural settings, see Hans-Bernd Brosius and Gabriel Weimann, “Who Sets the Agenda?  Agenda Setting as a Two-Step Flow,” Communication Research 23 (October 1996): 561-580. 


  • Julie Yioutas and Ivana Segvic, “Revisiting the Clinton/Lewinsky Scandal: The Convergence of Agenda Setting and Framing,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 80(3), 2003, 567- 583.
  • Dietram Scheufele, “Agenda Setting, Priming, and Framing Revisited: Another Look at Cognitive Effects of Political Communication,” Mass Communication and Society 3 (2000): 297-316.
  • Dietram A. Scheufele, “Framing as a Theory of Media Effects,” Journal of Communication 49 (Winter 1999): 102-22.
  • Vincent Price et al., “Switching Trains of Thought: The Impact of News Frames on Readers’ Cognitive Responses,” Communication Research 24 (October 1997): 481-506.
  • Lynn M. Zoch and Judy VanSlyke Turk, “Women Making News: Gender as a Variable in Source Selection and Use,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75 (Winter 1998): 762-75.
  • Betty Houchin Winfield, “The First Lady, Political Power, and the Media: Who Elected Her Anyway?” Women, Media, and Politics, ed. Pippa Norris (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 166-79. 

The media’s gatekeeping function

  • Bruce Williams and Michael X. Delli (2004).  “Monica and Bill all the time and everywhere: The collapse of gatekeeping and agenda-setting in the New Media environment.  American Behavioral Scientist, 47(9), 1208- 1230.
  • David Shaw (1994).  “Surrender of the Gatekeepers: Single greatest ethical problem confronting editors is letting trashy tabs set news agenda.”  Nieman Reports, 48(1), 3-5.
  • Pamela J. Shoemaker, Gatekeeping (Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1991).
  • David Croteau and William Hoynes, By Invitation Only: How the Media Limit Political Debate (Common Courage, 1994). 

Feature-film resources

  • Three outstanding films that might help enliven a discussion of agenda-setting include All the President’s Men (1976) about Woodward and Bernstein’s investigation into Watergate, Good Night and Good Luck (2005) shows Edward R. Murrow’s decision to expose Sen. McCarthy, and Syriana (2005) about power and corruption in the oil industry.

Cultural Context: Intercultural Communication

Communication Accommodation Theory (Chapter 31)

In addition to the sources Griffin lists in the Second Look feature, here are other applications of CAT across of variety of settings that might be of interest to your students:


  • Hajek, C., Villagran, M., & Wittenberg-Lyles, E. (2007, November). The Relationships Among Perceived Physician Accommodation, Perceived Outgroup Typicality, and Patient Inclinations Toward Compliance. Communication Research Reports, 24(4), 293-302.
  • Jones, L., Woodhouse, D., & Rowe, J. (2007, December). Effective nurse parent communication: A study of parents perceptions in the NICU environment. Patient Education & Counseling, 69(1-3), 206-212.


  • Gnisci, A., & Bakeman, R. (2007, September). Sequential Accommodation of Turn Taking and Turn Length A Study of Courtroom Interaction. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 26(3), 234-259.
  • Gnisci, A. (2005, December). Sequential strategies of accommodation: A new method in courtroom. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44(4), 621-643.

Children/ Lifestages

  • Robertson, K., & Murachver, T. (2003, September). Children’s speech accommodation to gendered language styles. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 22(3), 321-334.
  • Williams, A., & Garrett, P. (2002, June). Communication Evaluations Across the Life Span: From Adolescent Storm and Stress to Elder Aches and Pains. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 21(2), 101-127.


  • McCann, R., & Giles, H. (2006, January). Communication With People of Different Ages in the Workplace: Thai and American Data. Human Communication Research, 32(1), 74-108.
  • Willemyns, M., Gallois, C., & Callan, V. (2003, February). Trust me, I’m your boss: Trust and power in supervisor-supervisee communication. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(1), 117-127.
  • Willemyns, M., & Gallois, C. (1997, March). Accent accommodation in the job interview. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 16(1), 3-23.

Other applications and contexts for CAT

  • Thomson, R. (2006, June). The Effect of Topic of Discussion on Gendered Language in Computer-Mediated Communication Discussion. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 25(2), 167-178
  • Haas, A., & Gregory, S. (2005, September). The Impact of Physical Attractiveness on Women’s Social Status and Interactional Power. Sociological Forum, 20(3), 449-471.
  • Hajek, C., Abrams, J., & Murachver, T. (2005). Female, Straight, Male, Gay, and Worlds Betwixt and Between: An Intergroup Approach to Sexual and Gender Identities. Intergroup communication: Multiple perspectives (pp. 43-64). New York, NY, US: Peter Lang Publishing.
  • Green, J. (2003, September). The writing on the stall. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 22(3), 282-297.
  • Le Poire, B., Ota, H., & Hajek, C. (1997, June). Self-disclosure responses to stigmatizing disclosures: Communicating with gays and potentially HIV+ individuals. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 16(2), 159-190.
  • Buzzanell, P., & Burrell, N. (1996, Fall). When I call you up and you’re not there: Application of communication accommodation theory to... Western Journal of Communication, 60(4), 310-336.

Face-Negotiation Theory (Chapter 32)

  • For further discussion of Ting-Toomey’s face-negotiation theory, see:
    • Stella Ting-Toomey (2007), “Researching intercultural conflict competence”, 13(2), 7-30.
    • Ting-Toomey (2007).  “Intercultural conflict training: Theory-practice approaches and research challenges”, 36(3), 255- 271.
    • William B. Gudykunst and Tsukasa Nishida, “Interpersonal and Intergroup Communication in Japan and the United States,” Communication in Japan and the United States, 149-214
    • Stella Ting-Toomey, John G. Oetzel, and Kimberlie Yee-Jung, “Self-Construal Types and Conflict Management Styles,” Communication Reports 14 (Summer 2001): 87-104. 
  • Ruth M. Guzley et al. analyze the connection of self-construal with individualism and collectivism in “Cross-Cultural Perspectives of Commitment: Individualism and Collectivism as a Framework for Conceptualization,” Southern Communication Journal 64 (Fall 1998): 1-19. 
  • Deborah A. Cai and Edward L. Fink challenge the work of Ting-Toomey, Oetzel, and others on conflict styles in “Conflict Style Differences Between Individualists and Collectivists,” Communication Monographs 69 (March 2002): 67-87. 
  • On communication in East Asia, see Jun Ock Yum’s article, “The Impact of Confucianism on Interpersonal Relationships and Communication Patterns in East Asia,” Communication Monographs 55 (1988): 374-88. 
  • Ge Gao and Stella Ting-Toomey apply face and related concepts in Communicating Effectively with the Chinese (Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1998). 
  • Although unevenly written in places, Chin-ning Chu’s The Chinese Mind Game: The Best Kept Trade Secret of the East (Beaverton: AMC, 1988) includes a revealing discussion of Chinese facework. 
  • For an application of facework in an American employment setting, see Ruth Wagoner and Vincent R. Waldron, “How Supervisors Convey Routine Bad News: Facework at UPS,” Southern Communication Journal 64 (Spring 1999): 193-209.

Speech Codes Theory (Chapter 33)

  • For more discussion of the discourse of Donahue, see Donal Carbaugh, Talking American: Cultural Discourses on &ldquo;Donahue&rdquo; (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1989).  We also recommend Carbaugh’s Situating Selves: The Communication of Social Identities in American Scenes (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996). 
  • Katherine L. Fitch examines speech codes of Columbia in Speaking Relationally: Culture, Communication, and Interpersonal Connection (New York: Guilford Press, 1998).
  • Two other ethnographic studies that invite a speech codes analysis are Chase Hensel’s Telling Our Selves: Ethnicity and Discourse in Southwestern Alaska (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), and Andrew Arno’s The World of Talk on a Fijian Island: An Ethnography of Law and Communicative Causation (Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1993).

Literary examples

  • A superb illustration of speech codes in conflict is found in a work of recent American literature, Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood Among Ghosts (New York: Vintage International-Random, 1989).  Particularly relevant is the final chapter, entitled &ldquo;A Song for a Barbarian Reed Pipe,&rdquo; in which the protagonist-narrator, a Chinese-American girl caught between her Old-World ancestry and her New-World home, challenges the traditional Chinese values and linguistic practices to which her parents cling. 
  • For further discussion of this novel, see Victoria Chen, &ldquo;(De)hyphenated Identity: The Double Voice in The Woman Warrior,&rdquo; Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication, ed. Alberto Gonzalez, Marsha Houston, and Victoria Chen (Los Angeles: Roxbury, 1994), 3-11. 
  • Amy Tan’s popular novels, The Joy Luck Club (New York: Ivy-Ballantine, 1989), The Kitchen God’s Wife (New York: Putnam’s, 1991), and The Hundred Secret Senses (New York: Putnam’s, 1995), are also useful in this respect. 
  • An illuminating account of conflicting speech codes is Yuan-tsung Chen’s The Dragon’s Village: An Autobiographical Novel of Revolutionary China (New York: Penguin, 1981), which chronicles the tumultuous communication among urban reformers and rural peasants in post-revolutionary China.  The central protagonist, a young woman who moves from cosmopolitan Shanghai to a distant province to help enact socialist land reform, functions as both ethnographer and advocate as she struggles to communicate with people very different from herself.  The richness of the young woman’s intercultural experience also makes this text a good source for study of uncertainty/anxiety management and face-negotiation theories. 
  • For an interesting study of the speech code of the Mississippi Chinese, see Gwendolyn Gong, &ldquo;When Mississippi Chinese Talk,&rdquo; Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication, 92-99. 
  • Although dated in some ways, Elliot Liebow’s Tally’s Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967) provides a vivid look at the life and language of urban African-American men in the 1960s. 
  • A more recent book, Ernest J. Gaines’s novel A Lesson Before Dying (which we recommend in the introduction to this manual), poignantly presents the speech codes of African Americans of the deep South in the 1940s. 
  • Melanie Thernstrom chronicles a deadly story of clashing speech codes and cultural difference in Halfway Heaven: Diary of a Harvard Murder (New York: Plume, 1998).  Thernstrom’s treatment of Ethiopian and Vietnamese conventions about communication is particularly revealing. 

Performance studies

  • Performance ethnography relates to a large territory of communication theory called performance studies.  Recent work in performance studies is diverse and often controversial. 
  • Carol Simpson Stern and Bruce Henderson’s textbook, Performance: Text and Context (New York: Longman, 1993), is a very good basic resource. 
  • Articles of interest include:
    • Elizabeth Bell’s &ldquo;Weddings and Pornography: The Cultural Performance of Sex,&rdquo; Text and Performance Quarterly 19 (1999): 173-95.
    • Stephan P. Banks, &ldquo;Performing Flight Announcements: The Case of Flight Attendants’ Work Discourse,&rdquo; Text and Performance Studies 14 (July 1994): 253-67.
    • Dean Scheibel, &ldquo;Faking Identity in Clubland: The Communicative Performance of ‘Fake ID’,&rdquo; Text and Performance Quarterly 12 (April 1992): 160-75. 
    • The most controversial scholarship we’ve seen in this area is Fredrick Corey’s piece, &ldquo;Sextext,&rdquo; Text and Performance Quarterly 17 (January 1997): 58-68.  This article ignited a stunning, entertaining, and disturbing exchange on CRTNET that was subsequently analyzed by Peter M. Kellett and H. L. Goodall in &ldquo;The Death of Discourse in Our Own (Chat) Room: ‘Sextext,’ Skillful Discussion, and Virtual Communities,&rdquo; Soundbite Culture: The Death of Discourse in a Wired World, 155-90.

Whiteness studies

  • The new (and growing) field of whiteness studies—scholarship that explores how whites’ perspectives of race and ethnic identity are constructed socially and through language—is connected to speech codes theory.  Scholars in this field challenge the perspective of most discussions of race in America that focus only on those who are not white, and they argue that social constructions of racial identity influence the perspectives and experiences of white people.  Whiteness Studies provide a critical edge that may sharpen the findings of much speech codes research. 
  • General sources on whiteness include:
    • Ruth Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993).
    • Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic, eds., Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the Mirror (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997).
    • Michelle Fine et al., Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society (New York: Routledge, 1997).  The latter collection contains a section on whiteness, media, and cultural studies that may prove interesting in the context of previous chapters on the media. 
  • For discussions of—and research about—whiteness by scholars in the communication field, see:
    • Judith N. Martin et al., &ldquo;Exploring Whiteness: A Study of Self Labels for White Americans,&rdquo; Communication Quarterly 44 (Spring 1996): 125-44.
    • Carrie Crenshaw, &ldquo;Resisting Whiteness’ Rhetorical Silence,&rdquo; Western Journal of Communication 61 (Summer 1997): 253-78.
    • Jane H. Hill, &ldquo;Langauge, Race, and White Public Space,&rdquo; American Anthropologist 100 (1999): 680-89.
    • Ronald L. Jackson II, &ldquo;White Space, White Privilege: Mapping Discursive Inquiry Into the Self,&rdquo; Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (February 1999): 38-54.
    • Thomas K. Nakayama and Robert L. Krizek, &ldquo;Whiteness: A Strategic Rhetoric,&rdquo; Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (August 1995): 291-309.

Cultural Context: Gender and Communication

Genderlect Styles (Chapter 34)

  • A good general collection of essays on related issues is Linda A. M. Perry, Lynn H. Turner, and Helen M. Sterk, eds., Constructing and Reconstructing Gender: The Links Among Communication, Language, and Gender (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992).  Particularly relevant is Nancy Hoar’s piece, “Genderlect, Powerlect, and Politeness” (127-36). 
  • Annette Hannah and Tamar Murachver explore the genderlect hypothesis in “Gender and Conversational Style as Predictors of Conversational Behavior,” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18 (June 1999): 153-74. 
  • Suzanne Braun Levine examines the importance of genderlects in the profession of journalism in “News-Speak and Genderlect’(It’s Only News if You Can Sell It),” Media Studies Journal 7 (Winter 1993): 114-23. 
  • William Rawlins’s Friendship Matters, which Griffin features in the Second Look section of Chapter 11, has much of interest to say about the ways males and females communicate with their friends and romantic partners. 
  • Heidi Reeder examines the assumptions, ideologies, and methodologies for studying gender differences in interpersonal communication in her article, “A critical look at gender difference in communication research,” Communication Studies, 47(4), 1996, 318- 331.
  • For a critical assessment of the male genderlect, see Peter F. Murphy, Studs, Tools, and the Family Jewels: Metaphors Men Live By (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001). 
  • For discussion of interruptions, see Sara Hayden, “Interruptions and the Construction of Reality,” Differences that Make a Difference: Examining the Assumptions in Gender Research, ed. Turner and Sterk, 99-106. 
  • Shawn Parry-Giles and Trevor Parry-Giles analyze problems with the “feminine style” of discourse in the political realm in “Gendered Politics and Presidential Image Construction: A Reassessment of the Feminine Style’,” Communication Monographs 63 (December 1996): 337-53.

Other texts by Tannen

  • Framing and Discourse (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) and Gender and Conversational Interaction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993). 
  • Her books on families include You Were Always Mom’s Favorite!: Sisters in Conversation Throughout Their Lives (New York: Random House, 2009); You’re Wearing THAT?: Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation. (New York: Random House, 2006); and I Only Say This Because I Love You: How The Way We Talk Can Make or Break Family Relationships Throughout Our Lives. (New York: Random House. 2001).
  • You may wish to check out her work, The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War of Words (New York: Ballantine Books, 1999). Although probably misnamedTannen is not really against argument when it is conducted rationally, fairly, and productivelyit takes on the discourse of contentiousness that may be too prevalent in our society. 

Two-cultures hypothesis in groups

  • Renee A. Myers et al. provide empirical support for the dual cultures approach to male-female communication in “Sex Differences and Group Argument: A Theoretical Framework and Empirical Investigation,” Communication Studies 48 (Spring 1997): 19-41. 
  • Katherine Hawkins and Christopher B. Power explore the presence of genderlects in small groups in “Gender Differences in Questions Asked During Small Decision-Making Group Discussions,” Small Group Research 30 (April 1999): 235-56. 

Critiques of Tannen

  • In The Mismeasure of Women (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), Carol Tavris offers an interesting critique of Tannen’s genderlects theory (297-301). For example, she argues, “What Tannen’s approach overlooks is that people’s ways of speaking . . . often depend more on the gender of the person they are speaking with than on their own intrinsic ‘conversation style’” (298-99). 
  • Other critiques of the two-cultures approach to gender and communication can be found in Mary Crawford’s Talking Difference: On Gender and Language (London: Sage, 1995); and Elizabeth Aries’s Men and Women in Interaction: Reconsidering the Differences (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 
  • An attack on Tannen’s evidence for You Just Don’t Understand is launched by Daena J. Goldsmith and Patricia A. Fulfs in “’You Just Don’t Have the Evidence’: An Analysis of Claims and Evidence in Deborah Tannen’s You Just Don’t Understand,Communication Yearbook 22 (1999): 1-49. 

Standpoint Theory (Chapter 35)

  • Nancy C. M. Hartsock scrutinizes the future in “Standpoint Theories for the Next Century,” Women & Politics 19 (1997): 93-101. 
  • Kristin J. Anderson and Campbell Leaper question several of Wood’s assertions about emotional differences in “Emotion Talk Between Same- and Mixed-Gender Friends: Form and Function,” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 17 (December 1998): 419-48. 
  • M. Lane Bruner expands standpoint theory, suggesting how it can help us critique gender stereotypes and the limits they impose in “Producing Identities: Gender Problematization and Feminist Argumentation,” Argumentation and Advocacy 32 (1996): 185-98. 

Standpoint theory applications

  • Debbie S. Dougherty, “Dialogue Through Standpoint: Understanding Women’s and Men’s Standpoints of Sexual Harassment,” Management Communication Quarterly 12 (February 1999): 436-68
  • Joey Sprague and Margaret Greer, “Standpoints and the Discourse on Abortion: The Reproductive Debate,” Women & Politics 19 (1998): 49-80
  • Brenda J. Allen, “Feminist Standpoint Theory: A Black Woman’s (Re)View of Organizational Socialization,” Communication Studies 47 (Winter 1996): 257-71
  • Aaronette M. White, “Talking Feminist, Talking Black: Micromobilization Processes in a Collective Protest Against Rape,” Gender & Society 13 (February 1999): 77-100. 

African-American women scholarship

For critiques of white feminists’ viewpoints by African-American women scholars and discussion of the ways in which racial and gender identities intersect in their lives, see:

  • bell hooks, Ain’t I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism (Boston: South End Press, 1981)
  • hooks’s essays “Reflections on Race and Sex” and “Representations: Feminism and Black Masculinity” in her collection Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics (Boston: South End Press, 1990);
  • Audre Lorde’s “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House” in her collection Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1984). 


  • For general discussion of postmodernism and the contribution of Jean-Francois Lyotard, see Arthur Berger’s Postmortem for a Postmodernist, which we’ve referenced in the Preface.
  • D. Lynn O’Brien Hallstein explores the postmodern connection in “A Postmodern Caring: Feminist Standpoint Theories, Revisioned Caring, and Communication Ethics,” Western Journal of Communication 63 (Winter 1999): 32-56. 

Standpoint theory and rhetoric

  • For a general assessment of standpoint theory and a discussion and application of its relevance to rhetorical studies, see Glen McClish and Jacqueline Bacon’s article “’Telling the Story Her Own Way’: The Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 32 (Spring 2002): 27-55.
  • Kathleen Ryan and Elizabeth J. Natalle explore connections between standpoint theory and invitational rhetoric in “Fusing Horizons: Standpoint Hermeneutics and Invitational Rhetoric,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 31 (Spring 2001): 69-90.

Muted Group Theory (Chapter 36)

  • Sonja Foss discusses and exemplifies “feminist criticism” in the sixth chapter of Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice.  Much of the analysis featured by Foss relates directly to the work of Kramarae and her associates. 
  • For an analysis of the “centrist” feminist position, see Julia T. Wood, “Dominant and Muted Discourses in Popular Representations of Feminism,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 82 (1996): 171-85. 
  • Mark P. Orbe combines muted group and standpoint theories to explore the communication of traditionally marginalized group members in mainstream organizational situations in “An Outsider Within Perspective to Organizational Communication: Explicating the Communicative Practices of Co-Cultural Group Members,” Management Communication Quarterly 12 (November 1998): 230-79. 
  • Frances Trix and Andrea Sankar discuss the media’s role in silencing the female perspective in “Women’s Voices and Experiences of the Hill-Thomas Hearings,” American Anthropologist 100 (March 1998): 32-40. 
  • The ultimate fictional example of women as a muted group is Margaret Atwood’s dystopian novel, The Handmaid’s Tale (New York: Fawcett Crest, 1986), which is also available as a film. 
  • For speculation about why women’s voices are underrepresented in the media, see Naomi Wolf, “Are Opinions Male?” The New Republic (November 29, 1993): 20-26.  Wolf’s piece partially addresses the issue raised by Essay Question #21. 
  • For further discussion of mutedness “on line,” see Barbara Warnick, “Masculinizing the Feminine: Inviting Women on Line 1997,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 16 (March 1999): 1-19. 
  • For a study that challenges some of Kramarae’s assumptions about public discourse, see Ann Weatherall, “Language About Women and Men: An Example from Popular Culture,” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 15 (1996): 59-75. Weatherall argues, “A quantitative content analysis of the selected conversations gave virtually no support for the claim that general patterns of language use largely ignore or narrowly define women but not men” (70). 
  • For discussion of gender-specific language, sexist linguistic practice, and related problems, see Pearson, Turner, and Todd-Mancillas, Gender and Communication
  • For further discussion of name choices, see Laura Stafford and Susan L. Kline, “Married Women’s Name Choices and Sense of Self,” Communication Reports 9 (1996): 85-92. 
  • Controversial analysis of marginalizing discourse in our own profession is provided by Carole Blair, Leslie Baxter, and Julie R. Brown in “Disciplining the Feminine,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 80 (1994): 383-409. 
  • For applications of muted group theory to rhetorical analysis in general and to nineteenth-century abolitionist rhetoric of women and African Americans in specific, see Jacqueline Bacon, The Humblest May Stand Forth (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2002), 53-54, 112-13, 141-42, 157, 175-76.

Sexual harassment

  • Shereen G. Bingham, Conceptualizing Sexual Harassment as Discourse Practice (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1994);
  • Gary L. Kreps, ed., Sexual Harassment: Communication Implications (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1993);
  • Diana K. Ivy and Stephen Hamlet, “College Students and Sexual Dynamics: Two Studies of Peer Sexual Harassment,” Communication Education 45 (1996): 149-66. 
  • To explore connections between sexual harassment and organizational culture, see Joann Keyton, Pat Ferguson, and Steven C. Rhodes, “Cultural Indicators of Sexual Harassment,” Southern Communication Journal 67 (Fall 2001): 38-50. 


Common Threads in Comm Theories (Chapter 37)

  • Recent integrative essays on communication theory include:
    • John Stewart’s “Developing Communication Theories,” Developing Communication Theories, 157-92.
    • Branislav Kovacic and Donald P. Cushman’s “A Pluralistic View of the Emerging Theories of Human Communication,” Emerging Theories of Human Communication, 170-87. 
  • Two other recent theory texts which show a range of connections across the disciple include:
    • Gregory Shepherd, Jeffery St. John, and Ted Striphas (eds.) Communication as& Perspectives on Theory  (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006).
    • Bryan Whaley and Wendy Samter (eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars. (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007).

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