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Theory Resources

DEEPEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE THEORIES IN THE 10TH EDITION

 

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 CHAPTER OUTLINES






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resources. Read more


New to Theory Resources?
Find out more in this
short video overview (3:01).

Chapter Outlines
10th Edition

From the Instructors Manual


List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details | Clear details

Chapter  2—Talk About Theory

  1. Introduction.
    1. Behavioral scientists are scholars who apply the scientific method to describe, predict, and explain recurring forms of human behavior.
    2. Rhetoricians are scholars who study the ways in which symbolic texts can be used to identify with people, or to persuade people towards a certain view. They interpret texts.
  2. Two communication scholars view a heartwarming ad.
    1. Glenn: An objective approach.
      1. Social scientists wonder why the commercial produced such a positive sentiment and whether it resulted in action.
      2. They want to explain and predict human behavior.
      3. For scientists, it’s not enough to identify a theory that seems to apply to the situation. We want an objective test to find out if a theory is faulty.
      4. In science, theory and research walk hand in hand.
    2. Marty: An interpretive approach.
      1. The entire ad is structured by an archetypal mythic pattern of birth-death-rebirth.
      2. The ad activates emotions by incorporating the form of the cycle within a mini-narrative.
  3. Objective or interpretive: Sorting out the labels.
    1. The objective and interpretive approaches to communication study differ in starting point, method, and conclusion.
    2. Scholars who do objective study are scientists concerned with behavior and attitudes.
    3. Scholars who do interpretive study are concerned with meaning, and reflect a range of ideological and methodological positions. As a result, there is no single unifying or accepted label, although the authors uses the term “interpretive scholars” to apply to the entire groups and specific labels for subgroups as appropriate.
  4. Ways of knowing: Discovering truth or creating multiple realities?
    1. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge.
    2. Scientists assume that truth is singular.
      1.   Reality is accessible through our senses.
      2. No one person can know it all, so individual researchers pool their findings and build a collective body of knowledge about how the world works.
      3. Good theories are mirrors of nature, true as long as conditions remain the same.
    3. Interpretive scholars seek truth as well, but many interpreters regard that truth as socially constructed through communication.
      1. Truth is largely subjective and meaning is highly interpretive.
      2. Knowledge is always viewed from a particular standpoint.
      3. The knower cannot be separated from the known.
      4. Texts never interpret themselves.
      5. Multiple meanings or multiple versions of truth are acceptable.
      6. Successful interpretations are those that convince others.
  5. Human nature: Determinism or free will.
    1. Scientists stress the forces that shape human behavior; interpretive scholars focus on conscious choices made by individuals
    2. Determinists argue that heredity and environment determine behavior.
      1. Behavioral scientists usually describe human conduct as occurring “because of” forces outside the individual’s awareness..
      2. Behavior is the response to a prior stimulus.
    3. In contrast, interpretive scholars tend to use explanatory phrases such as “so that” or “in order to” because they attribute a person’s action to conscious intent.
      1. They focus on conscious choices of individuals, not on why choices are made.
      2. They believe that significant decisions are value laden.
    4. As individual freedom increases, predictability of behavior decreases.
  6. The highest value: Objectivity or emancipation?
    1. When we talk about values, we are discussing priorities, questions of relative worth.
    2. Social scientists value objectivity; personal values should not distort human reality.
    3. Interpretive scholars seek to expand the range of free choice; knowledge is never neutral.
    4. Scientists seek effectiveness; interpreters focus on participation.
  7. The purpose of theory: Universal laws or guides for interpretation?
    1. Scientists seek universal laws; interpreters strive to interpret individual texts.
    2. Scientists test theories; interpreters explore the web of meaning constituting human existence.
    3. Scientists seek prediction; interpretive scholars strive for meaning.
  8. Objective or interpretive: Why is it important?
    1. You cannot fully understand a theory without knowing its assumptions about truth, human nature, the purpose of theory, and its values.
    2. It is helpful when thinking through theories to have a way of organizing them into objective and interpretive worldviews.
    3. Understanding objective and interpretive points can help you decide what direction to take your coursework.
    4. Theorists in both camps believe their area of work will improve relationships and society.
  9. Plotting theories on an objective-interpretive scale: A metatheoretical way of comparing theories featured in the book. Objective and interpretive labels anchor the ends of a continuum, with many theories in between.
 

You can access the Outline for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

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Resources
by Type




 OUTLINES


 VIDEOS


 ESSAY


 LINKS





Instructors can get
additional resources.
Read more

New to Theory
Resources?

Find out more
in this short
video overview
(3:01).

Chapter Outlines
10th Edition

From the Instructors Manual


List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details | Clear details

Chapter  2—Talk About Theory

  1. Introduction.
    1. Behavioral scientists are scholars who apply the scientific method to describe, predict, and explain recurring forms of human behavior.
    2. Rhetoricians are scholars who study the ways in which symbolic texts can be used to identify with people, or to persuade people towards a certain view. They interpret texts.
  2. Two communication scholars view a heartwarming ad.
    1. Glenn: An objective approach.
      1. Social scientists wonder why the commercial produced such a positive sentiment and whether it resulted in action.
      2. They want to explain and predict human behavior.
      3. For scientists, it’s not enough to identify a theory that seems to apply to the situation. We want an objective test to find out if a theory is faulty.
      4. In science, theory and research walk hand in hand.
    2. Marty: An interpretive approach.
      1. The entire ad is structured by an archetypal mythic pattern of birth-death-rebirth.
      2. The ad activates emotions by incorporating the form of the cycle within a mini-narrative.
  3. Objective or interpretive: Sorting out the labels.
    1. The objective and interpretive approaches to communication study differ in starting point, method, and conclusion.
    2. Scholars who do objective study are scientists concerned with behavior and attitudes.
    3. Scholars who do interpretive study are concerned with meaning, and reflect a range of ideological and methodological positions. As a result, there is no single unifying or accepted label, although the authors uses the term “interpretive scholars” to apply to the entire groups and specific labels for subgroups as appropriate.
  4. Ways of knowing: Discovering truth or creating multiple realities?
    1. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge.
    2. Scientists assume that truth is singular.
      1.   Reality is accessible through our senses.
      2. No one person can know it all, so individual researchers pool their findings and build a collective body of knowledge about how the world works.
      3. Good theories are mirrors of nature, true as long as conditions remain the same.
    3. Interpretive scholars seek truth as well, but many interpreters regard that truth as socially constructed through communication.
      1. Truth is largely subjective and meaning is highly interpretive.
      2. Knowledge is always viewed from a particular standpoint.
      3. The knower cannot be separated from the known.
      4. Texts never interpret themselves.
      5. Multiple meanings or multiple versions of truth are acceptable.
      6. Successful interpretations are those that convince others.
  5. Human nature: Determinism or free will.
    1. Scientists stress the forces that shape human behavior; interpretive scholars focus on conscious choices made by individuals
    2. Determinists argue that heredity and environment determine behavior.
      1. Behavioral scientists usually describe human conduct as occurring “because of” forces outside the individual’s awareness..
      2. Behavior is the response to a prior stimulus.
    3. In contrast, interpretive scholars tend to use explanatory phrases such as “so that” or “in order to” because they attribute a person’s action to conscious intent.
      1. They focus on conscious choices of individuals, not on why choices are made.
      2. They believe that significant decisions are value laden.
    4. As individual freedom increases, predictability of behavior decreases.
  6. The highest value: Objectivity or emancipation?
    1. When we talk about values, we are discussing priorities, questions of relative worth.
    2. Social scientists value objectivity; personal values should not distort human reality.
    3. Interpretive scholars seek to expand the range of free choice; knowledge is never neutral.
    4. Scientists seek effectiveness; interpreters focus on participation.
  7. The purpose of theory: Universal laws or guides for interpretation?
    1. Scientists seek universal laws; interpreters strive to interpret individual texts.
    2. Scientists test theories; interpreters explore the web of meaning constituting human existence.
    3. Scientists seek prediction; interpretive scholars strive for meaning.
  8. Objective or interpretive: Why is it important?
    1. You cannot fully understand a theory without knowing its assumptions about truth, human nature, the purpose of theory, and its values.
    2. It is helpful when thinking through theories to have a way of organizing them into objective and interpretive worldviews.
    3. Understanding objective and interpretive points can help you decide what direction to take your coursework.
    4. Theorists in both camps believe their area of work will improve relationships and society.
  9. Plotting theories on an objective-interpretive scale: A metatheoretical way of comparing theories featured in the book. Objective and interpretive labels anchor the ends of a continuum, with many theories in between.
 

You can access the Outline for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

Back to top



The screen on this device is not wide enough to display Theory Resources. Try rotating the device to landscape orientation to see if more options become available.
Resources available to all users:

  • Theory Overview—abstract of each chapter
  • Self-Help Quizzes—for student preparation
  • Chapter Outlines
  • Key Names—important names and terms in each chapter
  • Conversation Videos—interviews with theorists
  • Application Logs—student application of theories
  • Essay Questions—for student prepatation
  • Suggested Movie Clips—tie-in movie scenese to theories
  • Links—web resources related to each chapter
  • Primary Sources—for each theory with full chapter coverage
  • Further Resources—bibliographic and other suggestions
  • Changes—for each theory, since the previous edition
  • Theory Archive—PDF copies from the last edition in which a theory appeared

Resources available only to registered instructors who are logged in:

  • Discussion Suggestions
  • Exercises & Activities
  • PowerPoint® presentations you can use
  • Short Answer Quizzes—suggested questions and answers
  • Compare Texts—comparison of theories covered in A First Look and ten other textbooks

Information for Instructors. Read more


 

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