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10th Edition

Bibliographic reference for theories, from the Instructors Manual

List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details (Or click on a theory name to collapse the list)

Chapter  5Symbolic Interactionism

George Herbert Mead, Mind, Self, and Society, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1934, pp. 144-166, 173-178.

Chapter  6Coordinated Management of Meaning

W. Barnett Pearce, "The Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM)," in Theorizing about Intercultural Communication, William B. Gudykunst (ed.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2005, pp. 35-54.

Chapter  7Expectancy Violations Theory

Judee K. Burgoon and Jerold Hale, "Nonverbal Expectancy Violations: Model Elaboration and Application to Immediacy Behaviors," Communication Monographs, Vol. 55, 1988, pp. 58-79.

Chapter  8Social Penetration Theory

Dalmas Taylor and Irwin Altman, "Communication in Interpersonal Relationships: Social Penetration Processes," in Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, Michael Roloff and Gerald Miller (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1987, pp. 257-277.

Chapter  9Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Charles R. Berger, "Communicating Under Uncertainty," in Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, Michael Roloff & Gerald Miller (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1987, pp. 39-62; Leanne K. Knobloch, “Uncertainty Reduction Theory,” in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, Leslie A. Baxter and Dawn O. Braithwaite (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2008, pp. 133–144.


Chapter 10Social Information Processing Theory

Joseph B. Walther, "Interpersonal Effects in Computer-Mediated Interaction: A Relational Perspective," Communication Research, Vol. 19, 1992, pp. 52-90; Joseph B. Walther, “Computer-Mediated Communication: Impersonal, Interpersonal, and Hyperpersonal Interaction,” Communication Research, Vol. 23, 1996, pp. 3–43.


Chapter 11Relational Dialectics THeory

Leslie A. Baxter, "Relationships as Dialogues," Personal Relationships, Vol. 11, 2004, pp. 1-22.

Chapter 12Communication Privacy Management Theory

Sandra Petronio and Wesley T. Durham, “Communication Privacy Management Theory: Significance for Interpersonal Communication,” in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, 2nd ed., Dawn O. Braithwaite and Paul Schrodt (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2015, 335-347.


Chapter 13Media Multiplexity Theory

Caroline Haythornthwaite, "Social Networks and Internet Connectivity Effects," Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 8, 2005, pp. 125-147.


Chapter 14Social Judgment Theory

Carolyn Sherif, Muzafer Sherif, and Roger Nebergall, Attitude and Attitude Change: The Social Judgment-Involvement Approach, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1965, pp. 219-246.

Chapter 15Elaboration Likelihood Model

Richard Petty and John Cacioppo, Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986, pp. 1-24.


Chapter 16Cognitive Dissonance

Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford University, Standford, Calif., 1957, pp. 1-32

Chapter 17Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making

Dennis Gouran, Randy Hirokawa, Kelly Julian, and Geoff Leatham, "The Evolution and Current Status of the Functional Perspective on Communication in Decision-Making and Problem Solving Groups," in Communication Yearbook 16, Stanley Deetz (ed.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1993, pp. 573-600.

Chapter 18Symbolic Convergence Theory

Ernest G. Bormann, John Cragan, and Donald Shields, "In Defense of Symbolic Convergence Theory: A Look at the Theory and its Criticisms After Two Decades, " Communication Theory, Vol. 4, 1994, pp. 259-294.


Chapter 19Cultural Approach to Organizations

Michael Pacanowsky, "Communication in the Empowering Organization," in Communication Yearbook 11, James Anderson (ed.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1988, pp. 356-379.

Chapter 20Communicative Constitutions of Organizations

Robert D. McPhee and Pamela Zaug, “The Communicative Constitution of Organizations: A Framework for Explanation,” in Building Theories of Organization: The Constitutive Role of Communication, Linda L. Putnam and Anne Maydan Nicotera (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2009, pp. 21-45.


Chapter 21Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations

Stanley Deetz, Transforming Communication, Transforming Business: Building Responsive and Responsible Workplaces, Hampton, Cresskill, NJ, 1995, pp. 97-126.

Chapter 22The Rhetoric

Aristotle, On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civil Discourse, George A. Kennedy (ed. and trans.), Oxford University, New York, 1991, pp. 25-51.

Chapter 23Dramatism

Kenneth Burke, "On Human Behavior Considered Dramatistically," in Permanence and Change, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1965, pp. 274-294; Kenneth Burke, "Definition of a Man," in Language as Symbolic Action, University of California, Berkeley, 1966, pp. 3-24.

Chapter 24Narrative Paradigm

Walter Fisher, Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 1987, pp. 57-84, 105-123.

Chapter 25Media Ecology

"Playboy Interview: Marshall McLuhan,—A Candid Conversation with the High Priest of Popcult and Metaphysician of Media" Playboy Magazine, March, 1969, reprinted in Essential McLuhan, Eric McLuhan and Frank Zingrone (eds.), Basic Books, New York, 1995, pp 233-269. Available online at https://www.nextnature.net/2009/12/the-playboy-interview-marshall-mcluhan/.


Chapter 26Semiotics

Roland Barthes, Mythologies, Annette Lavers (trans.), Hill and Wang, New York, 1972, especially "The World of Wrestling" and "Myth Today," pp. 15-25, 109-159.


Chapter 27Cultural Studies

Stuart Hall, "Ideology and Communication Theory," in Rethinking Communication Theory, Vol. 1, Brenda Dervin, Lawrence Grossberg, Barbara O'Keefe, and Ellen Wartella (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1989, pp. 40-52. (See also multiple reactions following.)


Chapter 28Uses and Gratifications

Alan M. Rubin, “Uses-And-Gratifications Perspective on Media Effects,” Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, 3rd ed., Jennings Bryant and Mary Beth Oliver (eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, 2009, pp.165-184.


Chapter 29Cultivation Theory

Michael Morgan, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, "Growing Up with Television," in Media Effects: Advances in Theory & Research, 3rd ed., Jennings Bryant and Mary Beth Oliver (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2009, pp. 34-49.


Chapter 30Agenda-Setting Theory

Maxwell E. McCombs, Donald L. Shaw, and David H. Weaver, "New Directions in Agenda-Setting Theory and Research," Mass Communication and Society, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 781-802.


Chapter 31Genderlect Styles

Deborah Tannen, You Just Don't Understand, Balantine, New York, 1990, pp. 23-73.

Chapter 32Standpoint Theory

Julia T. Wood, Communication Theories in Action, 3rd ed., Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 2004, pp. 212-220.


Chapter 33Muted Group Theory

Cheris Kramarae, Women and Men Speaking, Newbury House, Rowley, MA, 1981, pp. v-ix, 1-63.


Chapter 34Communication Accommodation Theory

Howard Giles and Jordan Soliz, "Communication Accommodation Theory: A Situated Framework for Relational, Family, and Intergroup Dynamics," in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, 2nd ed., Dawn O. Braithwaite and Paul Schrodt (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2015, pp. 161-173.


Chapter 35Face-Negotiation Theory

Stella Ting-Toomey, "The Matrix of Face: An Updated Face-Negotiation Theory," in Theorizing about Intercultural Communication, William B. Gudykunst (ed.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2005, pp. 71-92.

Chapter 36Co-Cultural Theory

Mark P. Orbe, Constructing Co-Cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and Communication, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998.



You can access the Primary Source for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

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Primary Sources
10th Edition

Bibliographic reference for theories, from the Instructors Manual

List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details (Or click on a theory name to collapse the list)

Chapter  5Symbolic Interactionism

George Herbert Mead, Mind, Self, and Society, University of Chicago, Chicago, 1934, pp. 144-166, 173-178.

Chapter  6Coordinated Management of Meaning

W. Barnett Pearce, "The Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM)," in Theorizing about Intercultural Communication, William B. Gudykunst (ed.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2005, pp. 35-54.

Chapter  7Expectancy Violations Theory

Judee K. Burgoon and Jerold Hale, "Nonverbal Expectancy Violations: Model Elaboration and Application to Immediacy Behaviors," Communication Monographs, Vol. 55, 1988, pp. 58-79.

Chapter  8Social Penetration Theory

Dalmas Taylor and Irwin Altman, "Communication in Interpersonal Relationships: Social Penetration Processes," in Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, Michael Roloff and Gerald Miller (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1987, pp. 257-277.

Chapter  9Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Charles R. Berger, "Communicating Under Uncertainty," in Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, Michael Roloff & Gerald Miller (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1987, pp. 39-62; Leanne K. Knobloch, “Uncertainty Reduction Theory,” in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, Leslie A. Baxter and Dawn O. Braithwaite (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2008, pp. 133–144.


Chapter 10Social Information Processing Theory

Joseph B. Walther, "Interpersonal Effects in Computer-Mediated Interaction: A Relational Perspective," Communication Research, Vol. 19, 1992, pp. 52-90; Joseph B. Walther, “Computer-Mediated Communication: Impersonal, Interpersonal, and Hyperpersonal Interaction,” Communication Research, Vol. 23, 1996, pp. 3–43.


Chapter 11Relational Dialectics THeory

Leslie A. Baxter, "Relationships as Dialogues," Personal Relationships, Vol. 11, 2004, pp. 1-22.

Chapter 12Communication Privacy Management Theory

Sandra Petronio and Wesley T. Durham, “Communication Privacy Management Theory: Significance for Interpersonal Communication,” in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, 2nd ed., Dawn O. Braithwaite and Paul Schrodt (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2015, 335-347.


Chapter 13Media Multiplexity Theory

Caroline Haythornthwaite, "Social Networks and Internet Connectivity Effects," Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 8, 2005, pp. 125-147.


Chapter 14Social Judgment Theory

Carolyn Sherif, Muzafer Sherif, and Roger Nebergall, Attitude and Attitude Change: The Social Judgment-Involvement Approach, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1965, pp. 219-246.

Chapter 15Elaboration Likelihood Model

Richard Petty and John Cacioppo, Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986, pp. 1-24.


Chapter 16Cognitive Dissonance

Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford University, Standford, Calif., 1957, pp. 1-32

Chapter 17Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making

Dennis Gouran, Randy Hirokawa, Kelly Julian, and Geoff Leatham, "The Evolution and Current Status of the Functional Perspective on Communication in Decision-Making and Problem Solving Groups," in Communication Yearbook 16, Stanley Deetz (ed.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1993, pp. 573-600.

Chapter 18Symbolic Convergence Theory

Ernest G. Bormann, John Cragan, and Donald Shields, "In Defense of Symbolic Convergence Theory: A Look at the Theory and its Criticisms After Two Decades, " Communication Theory, Vol. 4, 1994, pp. 259-294.


Chapter 19Cultural Approach to Organizations

Michael Pacanowsky, "Communication in the Empowering Organization," in Communication Yearbook 11, James Anderson (ed.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1988, pp. 356-379.

Chapter 20Communicative Constitutions of Organizations

Robert D. McPhee and Pamela Zaug, “The Communicative Constitution of Organizations: A Framework for Explanation,” in Building Theories of Organization: The Constitutive Role of Communication, Linda L. Putnam and Anne Maydan Nicotera (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2009, pp. 21-45.


Chapter 21Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations

Stanley Deetz, Transforming Communication, Transforming Business: Building Responsive and Responsible Workplaces, Hampton, Cresskill, NJ, 1995, pp. 97-126.

Chapter 22The Rhetoric

Aristotle, On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civil Discourse, George A. Kennedy (ed. and trans.), Oxford University, New York, 1991, pp. 25-51.

Chapter 23Dramatism

Kenneth Burke, "On Human Behavior Considered Dramatistically," in Permanence and Change, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1965, pp. 274-294; Kenneth Burke, "Definition of a Man," in Language as Symbolic Action, University of California, Berkeley, 1966, pp. 3-24.

Chapter 24Narrative Paradigm

Walter Fisher, Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 1987, pp. 57-84, 105-123.

Chapter 25Media Ecology

"Playboy Interview: Marshall McLuhan,—A Candid Conversation with the High Priest of Popcult and Metaphysician of Media" Playboy Magazine, March, 1969, reprinted in Essential McLuhan, Eric McLuhan and Frank Zingrone (eds.), Basic Books, New York, 1995, pp 233-269. Available online at https://www.nextnature.net/2009/12/the-playboy-interview-marshall-mcluhan/.


Chapter 26Semiotics

Roland Barthes, Mythologies, Annette Lavers (trans.), Hill and Wang, New York, 1972, especially "The World of Wrestling" and "Myth Today," pp. 15-25, 109-159.


Chapter 27Cultural Studies

Stuart Hall, "Ideology and Communication Theory," in Rethinking Communication Theory, Vol. 1, Brenda Dervin, Lawrence Grossberg, Barbara O'Keefe, and Ellen Wartella (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1989, pp. 40-52. (See also multiple reactions following.)


Chapter 28Uses and Gratifications

Alan M. Rubin, “Uses-And-Gratifications Perspective on Media Effects,” Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research, 3rd ed., Jennings Bryant and Mary Beth Oliver (eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, 2009, pp.165-184.


Chapter 29Cultivation Theory

Michael Morgan, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, "Growing Up with Television," in Media Effects: Advances in Theory & Research, 3rd ed., Jennings Bryant and Mary Beth Oliver (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2009, pp. 34-49.


Chapter 30Agenda-Setting Theory

Maxwell E. McCombs, Donald L. Shaw, and David H. Weaver, "New Directions in Agenda-Setting Theory and Research," Mass Communication and Society, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 781-802.


Chapter 31Genderlect Styles

Deborah Tannen, You Just Don't Understand, Balantine, New York, 1990, pp. 23-73.

Chapter 32Standpoint Theory

Julia T. Wood, Communication Theories in Action, 3rd ed., Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 2004, pp. 212-220.


Chapter 33Muted Group Theory

Cheris Kramarae, Women and Men Speaking, Newbury House, Rowley, MA, 1981, pp. v-ix, 1-63.


Chapter 34Communication Accommodation Theory

Howard Giles and Jordan Soliz, "Communication Accommodation Theory: A Situated Framework for Relational, Family, and Intergroup Dynamics," in Engaging Theories in Interpersonal Communication: Multiple Perspectives, 2nd ed., Dawn O. Braithwaite and Paul Schrodt (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2015, pp. 161-173.


Chapter 35Face-Negotiation Theory

Stella Ting-Toomey, "The Matrix of Face: An Updated Face-Negotiation Theory," in Theorizing about Intercultural Communication, William B. Gudykunst (ed.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2005, pp. 71-92.

Chapter 36Co-Cultural Theory

Mark P. Orbe, Constructing Co-Cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and Communication, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1998.



You can access the Primary Source for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

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