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Chapter  1—Launching Your Study of Communication Theory

For good collections of general essays on communication theory, see

Fred L. Casmir (ed.), Building Communication Theories: A Socio/Cultural Approach, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1994. 

Gregory J. Shepherd, Jeffrey St. John, and Ted Striphas (eds), Communication As…: Perspectives on Theory, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006.

Additional resources

Carma L. Bylund, Emily B. Peterson, and Kenzie A. Cameron, “A Practitioner's Guide to Interpersonal Communication Theory: An Overview and Exploration of Selected Theories,” Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 87, 2012, pp. 261-267.

Robert T. Craig, “Pragmatist Realism in Communication Theory,” Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication, Vol. 7, 2016, pp. 115-128.

Thomas Hanitzsch, “Celebrating 25 Years of Communication Theory: Growing Diversity Under Heavy Strain,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 349-355.

Yoshitaka Miike, “De-Westernizing Communication Theory and Research: An Asiacentric Bibliography,” China Media Research, Vol. 7, 2011, pp. 111-121.

Barbie Zelizer, “Making Communication Theory Matter,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 410-415.

 

Chapter  2—Talk About Theory

  • In “The Third Way: Scientific Realism and Communication Theory,” Communication Theory 9 (May 1999): 162-88, Charles Pavitt further clarifies—and complicates—the “scientific” approach to communication theory. 
  • If you’d like to read more about Em Griffin’s view of communication research, we recommend “Journal of Communication and Religion: A State-of-the-Art Review,” Journal of Communication and Religion 21 (1998): 108-40. 
  • For essays on theory and research in interpersonal communication, see Barbara Montgomery and Steve Duck, eds., Studying Interpersonal Interaction (New York: Guilford, 1991). 
  • For discussion of the ways in which science is inherently interpretive or rhetorical, see:
    • Alan Gross, Joseph Harmon, and Michael Reidy, Communicating Science: The Scientific Article from the Seventeenth Century to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002);
    • Charles Bazerman, Shaping Written Knowledge: Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988);
    • Alan G. Gross, The Rhetoric of Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990);

Differences between the interpretive and the objective perspectives on communication

  • For additional discussion, see Glen McClish’ article, “Humanist and Empiricist Rhetorics: Some Reflections on Rhetorical Sensitivity, Message Design Logics, and Multiple Goal Structures,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 23 (Summer/Fall 1994): 27-45.  Because he tries to offer a way in which interpretive scholars (which he call humanists) can learn from their objective (which he call empiricist) colleagues, you may wish to revisit this article as you prepare to teach the final chapter in the book, which further explores the relationship between the two camps. 

Multiple interpretations of text

  • For further discussion, see Leah Ceccarelli, “Polysemy: Multiple Meanings in Rhetorical Criticism,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (November 1998): 395-15. 

Free will and determinism

  • One of the finest discussions we know of the debate over free will and determinism is William James's “The Dilemma of Determinism,” The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy, 145-83.  James's analogy of the chess game between the novice and the expert demonstrates a kind of resolution or middle ground between the free will argument and the determinist argument (181-82).  The fact that James works religion into the discussion makes his position even more interesting. 

Science and subjectivity

  • Two intriguing discussions of science and subjectivity are James Watson's classic expose, The Double Helix (New York: NAL, 1969), and David Raup's The Nemesis Star: A Story of the Death of Dinosaurs and the Ways of Science (New York: Norton, 1986). 

Evidence

  • For discussion of the issue of what constitutes appropriate evidence in communication research, see:
    • The symposium “The Dialogue of Evidence: A Topic Revisited,” Western Journal of Communication 58 (1994): 1-71;
    • Stuart J. Sigman, “Question: Evidence of What?  Answer: Communication,” Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 79-84;
    • Leslie Baxter and Lee West, “On ‘Whistler's Mother’ and Discourse of the Fourth Kind,” Western Journal of Communication 60 (1996): 92-100. 

Chapter  3—Weighing the Words

Empirical methods

Martin W. Bauer and Bankole A. Falade, “Public Understanding of Science: Survey Research Around the World,” in Routledge Handbook of Public Communication of Science and Technology, Brian Trench and Massimiano Bucchi (eds.), Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2014, pp. 140-159.

Jin Hong Ha and Lois Boynton, “Has Crisis Communication Been Studied Using an Interdisciplinary Approach? A 20-Year Content Analysis of Communication Journals,” International Journal of Strategic Communication, Vol. 8, 2014, pp. 29-44.

Yifeng Hu, “Health Communication Research in the Digital Age: A Systematic Review,” Journal of Communication In Healthcare, Vol. 8, 2015, pp. 260-288.

Jörg Matthes, Franziska Marquart, Brigitte Naderer, Florian Arendt, Desirée Schmuck, and Karoline Adam, “Questionable Research Practices in Experimental Communication Research: A Systematic Analysis From 1980 to 2013,” Communication Methods & Measures, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 193-207.

Paul Schrodt, “Quantitative Approaches to Dyadic Data Analyses in Family Communication Research: An Invited Essay,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 175-184. (See also the companion piece below by Manning & Kunkel.)

Ethnography and other interpretive methods

A good basic ethnography text is Wendy Bishop, Ethnographic Writing Research: Writing It Down, Writing It Up, and Reading It, Boynton/Cook, Portsmouth, NH, 1999.

 

For other examples, see:

Ronald C. Arnett, “Philosophy of Communication: Qualitative Research, Questions in Action,” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, Vol. 17, 2016, pp. 1-6.

Elissa Foster, Communicating at the End of Life: Finding Magic in the Mundane, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2007.

Andreas Hepp, Cindy Roitsch, and Matthias Berg, “Investigating communication networks contextually: Qualitative Network Analysis as Cross-Media Research,” Mediekultur: Journal of Media & Communication Research, Vol. 32, 2016, pp. 87-106.

Zoi Kalou and Eugene Sadler-Smith, “Using Ethnography of Communication in Organizational Research,” Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 629-655.

David Karpf, Daniel Kreiss, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, and Matthew Powers, “The Role of Qualitative Methods in Political Communication Research: Past, Present, and Future,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 1888-1906.

James L. Leighter, Lisa Rudnick, and Theresa J. Edmonds, “How the Ethnography of Communication Provides Resources for Design,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 209-215.

Ross Louis, “Food as Social Justice: Critical Ethnography as a Lens for Communication Activism,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 87-93.

Jimmie Manning and Adrianne Kunkel, “Qualitative Approaches to Dyadic Data Analyses in Family Communication Research: An Invited Essay,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 185-192.

Chapter  4—Mapping the Territory

Bruce E. Gronbeck’s 1998 Carroll C. Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “Paradigms of Speech Communication Studies: Looking Back to the Future” (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, 1999) provides an alternative view of the discipline’s “territory.” 

 

For further discussions of traditions in communication theory, see:

Robert T. Craig, « The Constitutive Metamodel: A 16-Year Review,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 356-374.

Marc Howard Rich, “Spiritual Debate in Communication Theory: Craig's Metamodel Applied,” Journal Of Communication & Religion, Vol. 38, 2015, pp. 134-153.

Peter Simonson, Leonarda García-Jiménez, Johan Siebers, and Robert T. Craig, “Some Foundational Conceptions of Communication: Revising and Expanding the Traditions of Thought,” Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy Of Communication, Vol. 4, 2013, pp. 73-92. 

Chapter  5—Symbolic Interactionism

  • Good general texts are Joel M. Charon, Symbolic Interactionism: An Introduction, An Interpretation, An Integration, 7th ed, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2000; and John P. Hewitt, Self and Society: A Symbolic Interactionist Social Psychology, Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1991. 
  • Because Mead is a root, rather than a branch, of communication theory, symbolic interactionism's influence is pervasive in our field.  Recent studies that owe a heavy intellectual debt to Mead and Blumer include:
    • Lonnie Athens, “The Belated Appearance of ‘Radical Interactionism’ on the American Sociological Stage: The Rise of G.H.Mead and Fall of Robert Park,”  American Sociologist, Vol. 48, 2017, pp. 23-47.
    • Michael J. Carter and Celene Fuller, Carter, M. (2016). “Symbols, Meaning and Action: The Past, Present, and Future of Symbolic Interactionism,” Current Sociology, Vol. 64, 2016, pp. 931-961.
 Applied Symbolic Interactionism
  • If you or your students have an interest in the dramaturgical issues raised by Goffman, we recommend recent work in performance theory.  The journal Text and Performance Quarterly is a good place to begin. 
  • Exploring the notion of the “me” when dealing with conforming to social norms
    • Paul Hughes, “Using Symbolic Interactionism Insights as an Approach to Helping the Individual with Asperger’s Syndrome Overcome Barriers to Social Inclusion,” British Journal of Special Education, Vol. 43, 2016, pp. 60-74.
  • For students interested in sports
    • Shannon M. Baird and Kerry R. McGannon, “Mean(ing) to Me: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach to Aggression in Sport Psychology,” Quest, Vol. 61, 2009, pp. 377-396.
    • Ketra L. Armstrong, “Self, Situations, and Sport Consumption: An Exploratory Study of Symbolic Interactionism,” Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 30, 2007, pp. 111-129.
  • Symbolic interactionism and discussions of sexuality
    • Monica A. Longmore, “Symbolic Interactionism and the Study of Sexuality,” Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 35, 1998, pp. 44-57.
    • Ken Plummer, “Queers, Bodies, and Postmodern Sexualities: A Note on Revisiting the 'Sexual' in Symbolic Interactionism,” Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 26, 2003, pp. 515-530.

The Pygmalion Effect

  • For discussion of the Pygmalion Effect and self-fulfilling prophecy, see:
    • Larry W. Howard, Thomas Li-Ping Tang, and M. Jill Austin, “Teaching Critical Thinking Skills: Ability, Motivation, Intervention, and the Pygmalion Effect,” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 128, 2015, pp. 133-147.
    • Len Karakowsky, Nadia DeGama, and Kenneth McBey, “Deconstructing Higgins: Gender Bias in the Pygmalion Phenomenon,” Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 32, 2017, pp. 2-18.
    • William P. Nye, “George Herbert Mead and the Paradox of Prediction,” Sociology of Religion, 38, 1977, pp. 91-105.
    • Rosenthal, R. & Jacobson, L.  Pygmalion in the Classroom, Holt, New York, 1968 (reprinted 1992 by Crown House Publishing, Norwalk, CT).
    • Norbert Wiley “The Self as Self-Fulfilling Prophecy,” Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 26, 2003, pp. 501-513.

 

Chapter  6—Coordinated Management of Meaning

  • Ronald Arnett paid tribute to Pearce’s life and scholarship in his article.
    • Ronald C. Arnett, “Philosophy of Communication as Carrier of Meaning: Adieu to W. Barnett Pearce,” Qualitative Research Reports In Communication, Vol. 14, 2013, pp. 1-9. 
  • For additional scholarship on CMM, see:
    • W. Barnett Pearce and Kimberly A. Pearce, “Extending the Theory of the Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) Through a Community Dialogue Process,” Communication Theory, Vol. 10, 2000, pp. 405-424.
    • Eerika Hedman and Eleni Gesch-Karamanlidis, “Facilitating Conversations that Matter Using Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory,” OD Practitioner, Vol. 47, 2015, pp. 41-46. 
  • For a cross-cultural, non-Western perspective, Jia argues for a less Western-centric view of effective communication incorporating the principles of CMM.
    • Wenshan Jia, “Towards a Discipline of Life Communication?,” Journal of Multicultural Discourses, Vol. 12, 2017, pp. 23-26. 
  • For interpersonal applications of CMM, Merolla and his coauthors have an excellent discussion of forgiveness in light of CMM
    • Andy J. Merolla, Shuangyue Zhang, Jennifer L. McCullough, and Shaojing Sun,”How Do You Like Your Forgiveness? Communication Style Preferences and Effects,” Communication Studies, Vol. 68, 2017, pp. 568-587. 
  • For an interesting combination of organizational communication practices, gender, and CMM, Hudak’s exploration of toy marketing is an interesting take on the theory’s concepts.
    • Kasey Clawson Hudak, “Deceiving or Disrupting the Pink Aisle? GoldieBlox, Corporate Narratives, and the Gendered Toy Debate,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, Vol. 14, 2017, pp. 158-175. 
  • For an applied CMM analysis in group settings:
    • Eerika Hedman and Eleni Gesch-Karamanlidis, “Facilitating Conversations that Matter Using Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory,” OD Practitioner, Vol. 47, 2015, pp. 41-46.
    • Eerika Hedman-Philips and J. Kevin Barge, “Facilitating Team Reflexivity About Communication,” Small Group Research, Vol. 48, 2017, pp. 255-287. 
  • CMM in the classroom:
    • Darrin S. Murray, “Navigating Toward Andragogy: Coordination and Management of Student–Professor Conversations,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 78, 2014, pp. 310-336.
Buber’s Dialogic Ethics
  • Although Buber was not a communication scholar per se, his philosophy has been extremely influential in communication circles.  In his interpersonal communication textbook, Bridges Not Walls, for example, John Stewart presents Buber as his foundation for meaningful human communication. Julia T. Wood follows a similar strategy in Everyday Encounters: An Introduction to Interpersonal Communication.  For more information on Buber, Richard L. Johannesen's Ethics in Human Communication is a good general source, as is his entry, “Buber,” in the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition (86-87). 
  • For a good collection of essays on dialogue, see Rob Anderson, Kenneth Cissna, and Ronald C. Arnett, The Reach of Dialogue: Confirmation, Voice, and Community, Hampton Press, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1994.
  • For a distinctly feminine perspective on ethics that borrows from Buber, see Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1984.

 

Chapter  7—Expectancy Violations Theory

EVT in applied situations

Burgoon’s theory has been applied to a wide variety of situations. The following represent only a few of those projects, and only ones that center around EVT. 

Judee K. Burgoon, Joseph A. Bonito, Paul Benjamin Lowry, Sean L. Humpherys, Gregory D. Moody, James E. Gaskin, and Justin Scott Giboney, “Application of Expectancy Violations Theory to Communication With and Judgments About Embodied Agents During a Decision-making Task,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 91, 2016, pp. 24-36.

Eric Fife, C. Leigh Nelson, and Kristin Zhang, “A New Horizon for a Classic Perspective: Facebook and Expectancy Violation Theory,” Journal of The Communication, Speech & Theatre Association Of North Dakota, Vol. 25, 2012/2013, pp. 13-23.

Danette Ifert Johnson and Nicole Lewis, “Perceptions of Swearing in the Work Setting: An Expectancy Violations Theory Perspective,” Communication Reports, Vol. 23, 2010, pp. 106-118.

 

EVT and relationship transgressions (including cell phone conversations)

Elizabeth L. Cohen, “Expectancy Violations in Relationships with Friends and Media Figures,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 27, 2010, pp. 97-111.

Lynne Kelly, Aimee E. Miller-Ott, and Robert L. Duran, “Sports Scores and Intimate Moments: An Expectancy Violations Theory Approach to Partner Cell Phone Behaviors in Adult Romantic Relationships,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 81, 2017, pp. 619-640.

Aimee Miller-Ott and Lynne Kelly, “The Presence of Cell Phones in Romantic Partner Face-to-Face Interactions: An Expectancy Violation Theory Approach,” Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 80, 2015, pp. 253-270.

Courtney N. Wright, and Michael E. Roloff, “You Should Just Know Why I'm Upset: Expectancy Violation Theory and the Influence of Mind Reading Expectations (MRE) on Responses to Relational Problems,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 32, 2015, pp. 10-19.

 

EVT in the classroom

Robert J. Sidelinger and Derek M. Bolen, “Compulsive Communication in the Classroom: Is the Talkaholic Teacher a Misbehaving Instructor?,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 174-196.

Robert J. Sidelinger and Derek M. Bolen, “Instructor Credibility as a Mediator of Instructors’ Compulsive Communication and Student Communication Satisfaction in the College Classroom,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 24-31.

 

Interaction Adaptation Theory

For a comprehensive look at IAT, see Judee K. Burgoon, Lesa A. Stern, and Leesa Dillman, “Interpersonal Adaptation: Dyadic Interaction Patterns,” Cambridge University Press, UK, 1995.

Recent application of IAT in various settings:

Valerie Akbulut, and Harry Weger Jr., “Predicting Responses to Bids for Sexual and Romantic Escalation in Cross-Sex Friendships,” Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 156, 2016, pp. 98-114.

Carrie D. Kennedy-Lightsey and Megan R. Dillow, “Initiating and Avoiding Communication with Mothers: Young Adult Children's Perceptions of Hurtfulness and Affirming Styles,” Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 76, 2011, pp. 482-501.

Samuel Hardman Taylor and Andrew M. Ledbetter, “Extending Media Multiplexity Theory to the Extended Family: Communication Satisfaction and Tie Strength as Moderators of Violations of Media Use Expectations,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 1369-1387.

Melinda Villagran, Joy Goldsmith, Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles, and Paula Baldwin, “Creating COMFORT: A Communication-based model for Breaking Bad News,” Communication Education, Vol. 59, 2010, pp. 220-234.

Chapter  8—Social Penetration Theory

  • If students want to learn more about social exchange theory, Griffin’s chapter-length treatment from the Second Edition is a good place to begin (available in the theory archive at www.afirstlook.com). 
  • For some applications of SPT in a technology-driven age, a few good articles to explore include:
    • Babajide Osatuyi, Katia Passerini, Aurelio Ravarini, and Sukeshini A. Grandhi, “‘Fool me once, shame on you… then, I learn.’ An examination of information disclosure in social networking sites,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 83, 2018, pp. 73-86.
    • Babajide Osatuyi, “Is Lurking an Anxiety-masking Strategy on Social Media Sites? The Effects of Lurking and Computer Anxiety on Explaining Information Privacy Concern on Social Media Platforms,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 49, pp. 324-332.
    • Erin K. Ruppel, “The Affordance Utilization Model: Communication Technology Use as Relationships Develop,” Marriage & Family Review, Vol. 51, pp. 669-686.
    • Jih-Hsin Tang and Cheng-Chung Wang, “Self-disclosure Among Bloggers: Re-examination of Social PenetrationTheory,” CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 245-250.
    • Sonja Utz, “The Function of Self-disclosure on Social Network Sites: Not Only Intimate, but also Positive and Entertaining Self-disclosures Increase the Feeling of Connection,” Computers in Human Behavior,Vol. 45, 2015, pp. 1-10. 
Johari window
  • If you present the Johari window to complement and contrast with social penetration, see:
    • Terry R. Armstrong, “Revisiting the Johari Window: Improving Communications Through Self-disclosure and Feedback,” Human Development, Vol. 27, 2006, pp. 10-14.
    • Moshe Bensimon, and Dorit Amir, “Sharing My Music with You: The Musical Presentation as a Tool for Exploring, Examining and Enhancing Self-awareness in a Group Setting,” The Journal of Creative Behavior, Vol. 44, 2010, pp. 259-277.
    • Lynn Little, “Leadership Communication and the Johari Window,” Administrator, Vol. 24, 2005, p. 4.

Chapter  9—Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Uncertainty reduction in close relationships
  • Kimberly J. M. Downs, “Family Commitment Role Perceptions, Social Support, and Mutual Children in Remarriage: A Test of Uncertainty Reduction Theory,” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 40, 2004, pp. 35-54.
  • Jennifer L. Gibbs, Nicole B. Ellison, and Chih-Hui Lai, “First Comes Love, Then Comes Google: An Investigation of Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Self-disclosure in Online Dating,” Communication Research, Vol. 38, 2011, pp. 70-100.
  • Jennifer A. Theiss and Denise H. Solomon, “Parsing the Mechanisms That Increase Relational Intimacy: The Effects of Uncertainty Amount, Open Communication About Uncertainty, and the Reduction of Uncertainty,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 34, 2008, pp. 625-654.

Relational Turbulence Theory

As alluded to in the chapter, there is an explosion of research on relational turbulence in recent years. Just a sampling of some of those projects includes: 

  • Natalie K. Ellis and Andrew M. Ledbetter, “Why Might Distance Make the Heart Grow Fonder?: A Relational Turbulence Model Investigation of the Maintenance of Long Distance and Geographically Close Romantic Relationships,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 63, 2015, pp. 568-585.
  • Leanne K. Knobloch, Lynne M. Knobloch-Fedders, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Aaron T. Ebata, and Patricia C. McGlaughlin, “Military Children’s Difficulty with Reintegration After Deployment: A Relational Turbulence Model Perspective,” Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 31, 2017, pp. 542-552.
  • Denise H. Solomon, Leanne K. Knobloch, Jennifer A. Theiss, and Rachel M. McLaren, “Relational Turbulence Theory: Explaining Variation in Subjective Experiences and Communication Within Romantic Relationships,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 507-532.

Uncertainty reduction in the digital age

  • Marjolijn L. Antheunis, Alexander P. Schouten, Patti M. Valkenburg, and Jochen Peter, “Interactive Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Verbal Affection in Computer-mediated Communication,” Communication Research, Vol. 39, 2012, pp. 757-780.
  • Cédric Courtois, Anissa All, and Hadewijch Vanwynsberghe, “Social Network Profiles as Information Sources for Adolescents' Offline Relations,” CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 290-295.
  • SeoYoung Lee and Junho Choi, “Enhancing User Experience with Conversational Agent for Movie Recommendation: Effects of Self-disclosure and Reciprocity,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 103, 2017, pp. 95-105.
  • Amy May and Kelly Tenzek, “‘A Gift We are Unable to Create Ourselves’: Uncertainty Reduction in Online Classified Ads Posted by Gay Men Pursuing Surrogacy,” Journal of GLBT Family Studies, Vol. 12, pp. 430-450.
  • Amy May and Kelly E. Tenzek, “Seeking Mrs. Right: Uncertainty Reduction in Online Surrogacy Ads,” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, Vol. 12, 2011, pp. 27-33.
  • Cynthia Palmieri, Kristen Prestano, Rosalie Gandley, Emily Overton, and Qin Zhang,”The Facebook Phenomenon: Online Self-disclosure and Uncertainty Reduction,” China Media Research, Vol. 8, 2012, pp. 108-113.

Anxiety-Uncertainty Management Theory (AUM)

  • In previous editions, Griffin covered AUM in a separate chapter. That treatment is available on the website www.afirstlook.com, under the “Theory Archive.”
  • For some other articles applying AUMT and URT, see
    • Craig R. Hullett and Kim Witte, “Predicting Intercultural Adaptation and Isolation: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Test Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory,” International Journal Of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 25, 2001, pp. 125-139.
    • Ann Neville Miller and Jennifer A. Samp, “Planning Intercultural Interaction: Extending Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 87-95.

URT in the classroom

For some other teaching ideas, see

  • Marcia Alesan Dawkins, “How it's Done: Using Hitch as a Guide to Uncertainty Reduction Theory,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 136-141.
  • Yifeng Hu, “Hands-on Experience with Uncertainty Reduction Theory: An Effective and Engaging Classroom Activity,” Florida Communication Journal, Vol. 43, 2015, pp. 119-123.

Chapter 10—Social Information Processing Theory

Classic books on communication and technology

For discussion of information technology and the computer’s effect on communication, see these classic pieces:

Alan L. Porter and William H. Read, The Information Revolution: Current and Future Consequences, Ablex, Greenwich, CT, 1998.

Tom Koch, The Message is the Medium: Online All the Time for Everyone, Praeger, Westport, CT, 1996.

 

Relationship development

Kevin B. Wright, “On-line Relational Maintenance Strategies and Perceptions of Partners Within Exclusively Internet-Based and Primarily Internet-Based Relationships,” Communication Studies, Vol.55, 2004, pp. 239- 254.

Jeffrey S. McQuillen, “The Influence of Technology on the Initiation of Interpersonal Relationships,” Education, Vol. 123, 2003, pp. 616-624.

Erin K. Ruppel, Clare Gross, Arrington Stoll, Brittnie S. Peck, Mike Allen, and Sang-Yeon Kim, “Reflecting on Connecting: Meta-Analysis of Differences Between Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Self-Disclosure,” Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 22, 2017, pp. 18-34.

 

Emotions online

Daejoong Kim, Mark G. Frank, and Sung Tae Kim, “Emotional Display Behavior in Different Forms of Computer Mediated Communication,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 30, 2014, pp. 222-229.

Carmina Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Ed S. H. Tan, and Peeter W. J. Verlegh, “Expressing Emotions in Blogs: The Role of Textual Paralinguistic Cues in Online Venting and Social Sharing Posts,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 73, 2017, pp. 638-649.

Tatiana A. Vlahovic, Sam Roberts, and Robin Dunbar, “Effects of Duration and Laughter on Subjective Happiness Within Different Modes of Communication,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 17, 2017, pp. 436-450.

 

Other teaching aids for SIP

Daria S. Heinemann, “Using You've Got Mail to Teach Social Information Processing Theory and Hyperpersonal Perspective in Online Interactions,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 25, 2011, pp. 183-188.

                                             

Applied uses of SIP

David C. DeAndrea, Stephanie Tom Tong, Yuhua Jake Liang, Timothy R. Levine, and Joseph B. Walther, “When Do People Misrepresent Themselves to Others? The Effects of Social Desirability, Ground Truth, and Accountability on Deceptive Self-Presentations,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 62, 2012, pp. 400-417.

Mi Rosie Jahng and Jeremy Littau, “Interacting Is Believing: Interactivity, Social Cue, and Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility on Twitter,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 93, 2016, pp. 38-58.

Jayeon Lee and Young-shin Lim, “Who Says What About Whom: Young Voters' Impression Formation of Political Candidates on Social Networking Sites,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 553-572.

Joseph B. Walther, Elaine Hoter, Asmaa Ganayem, and Miri Shonfeld, “Computer-Mediated Communication and the Reduction of Prejudice: A Controlled Longitudinal Field Experiment Among Jews and Arabs in Israel,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 52, 2015, pp. 550-558.

 

Nonverbal cues online

Joseph B. Walther, Tracy Loh, and Laura Granka, “Let Me Count the Ways: The Interchange of Verbal and Nonverbal Cues in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Affinity,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 24, 2005, pp. 36-66.

 

Classroom uses and distance education

J. B. Arbaugh, “How Instructor Immediacy Behaviors Affect Student Satisfaction and Learning in Web-based Courses,” Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 64, 2001, pp. 42-54.

Roger N. Conaway, Susan S. Easton, and Wallace V. Schmidt, “Strategies for Enhancing Student Interaction and Immediacy in Online Courses,” Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 68,2005, pp. 23-36.

Karen Swan, “Building Learning Communities in Online Courses: The Importance of Interaction,” Education, Communication & Information, Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 23-50.

Chapter 11—Relational Dialectics

Other relevant essays by Baxter

Leslie A. Baxter, Elizabeth A. Suter, Lindsey J. Thomas, and Leah M. Seurer, “The Dialogic Construction of ‘Adoption’ in Online Foster Adoption Narratives,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 193-213.

Leslie A. Baxter and Dawn O. Braithwaite, “Relational Dialectics Theory, Applied,” in New Directions in Interpersonal Communication Research, Sandi W. Smith and Stephen R. Wilson (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2010, pp. 48-66.

Leslie A. Baxter, Kristen M. Norwood, Bryan Asbury, and Kristina M. Scharp, “Narrating Adoption: Resisting Adoption as ‘Second Best’ in Online Stories of Domestic Adoption Told by Adoptive Parents,” Journal Of Family Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 253-269.

Dawn O. Braithwaite and Leslie A. Baxter, “‘You're my parent but you're not’: Dialectical Tensions in Stepchildren's Perceptions About Communicating with the Nonresidential Parent,” Journal Of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 34, 2006, pp. 30-48. doi:10.1080/00909880500420200

 

Applications of Relational Dialectics Theory in cross-cultural and/or marginalized communities

As mentioned earlier, you might want to explore some cross-cultural implications of the theory.  Some resources, applying RDT to other settings:

Debalina Dutta, “Cultural Barriers and Familial Resources for Negotiation of Engineering Careers Among Young Women: Relational Dialectics Theory in an Asian Perspective,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 17, 2017, pp. 338-355. doi:10.1080/15267431.2017.1363045

Khaled Nasser, Yasmine Dabbous, and Dima Baba, “From Strangers to Spouses: Early Relational Dialectics in Arranged Marriages Among Muslim Families in Lebanon,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 44, 2013, pp. 387-406.

Kristen Norwood, “Grieving Gender: Trans-identities, Transition, and Ambiguous Loss,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 80, 2013, pp. 24-45.

Carolyn M. Prentice, “The Romantic and the Practical: Using RDT 2.0 to Analyze Competing Cross-cultural Discourses,” Ohio Communication Journal, Vol. 53, 2013, pp. 44-51.

Jessica D. Ptomey, “Evidence of a Dialogical and Dialectical Protestant-Catholic Relationship in Evangelical Responses to the Selection of Pope Francis: Applying Relational Dialectics Theory to Interreligious Public Discourse and ‘Dialogue,’” Journal of Communication & Religion, Vol. 38, 2015, pp. 118-133.

Jake Simmons, Russell Lowery-Hart, Shawn T. Wahl, and M. Chad McBride, “Understanding the African-American Student Experience in Higher Education Through a Relational Dialectics Perspective,” Communication Education, Vol. 62, 2013, pp. 376-394.

 

Applied, state-of-the-art research

Rebecca Amati and Annegret F. Hannawa, “Relational Dialectics Theory: Disentangling Physician-Perceived Tensions of End-of-Life Communication,” Health Communication, Vol. 29, 2014, pp. 962-973.

Jesse Fox, Jeremy L. Osborn, and Katie M. Warber, “Relational Dialectics and Social Networking Sites: The Role of Facebook in Romantic Relationship Escalation, Maintenance, Conflict, and Dissolution,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 35, 2014, pp. 527-534.

Danielle Halliwell, “Extending Relational Dialectics Theory: Exploring New Avenues of Research,” Communication Yearbook, Vol. 39, 2015, pp. 67-95.

Karyn Sporer and Paige W. Toller, “Family Identity Disrupted by Mental Illness and Violence: An Application of Relational Dialectics Theory,” Southern Communication Journal, 82, 2017, pp. 85-101.

Elizabeth A. Suter and Kristen M. Norwood, “Critical Theorizing in Family Communication Studies: (Re)reading Relational Dialectics Theory 2.0,” Communication Theory, Vol. 27, 2017, pp. 290-308.

Agnieszka Wozniak, Susan Lollis, and Sheila K. Marshall, “Competing Discourses Within Parent–Adolescent Conversations,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 31, 2014, pp. 847-867.

Erin (Sahlstein) Parcell, a former graduate student of Baxter now at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, has worked extensively in the area of the dialectical challenges in long-distance relationships.  Some articles of interest to review: 

Erin M. Sahlstein, “Relating at a Distance: Negotiating Being Together and Being Apart in Long-Distance Relationships,” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, Vol. 21, 2004, pp. 689-710. 

Erin M. Sahlstein, “Making Plans: Praxis Strategies for Negotiating Uncertainty-Certainty in Long-Distance Relationships,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 70, 2006, pp. 147- 165.

 

Literary examples

For your male students in particular, we recommend Patrick O’Brian’s extensive series of sea novels, which features the extroverted, passionate, practical Captain Jack Aubrey and the introverted, cerebral, scientifically-minded Stephen Maturin, naval surgeon, naturalist, and secret agent.  Aubrey and Maturin’s complex, often tense, always vibrant friendship, which is developed and nurtured in vividly recorded dialogue, illustrates many dialectical elements and demonstrates that long-term close relationships embodying Baxter’s approach need not be romantic or familial.  The first novel in the series is Master and Commander, which is also the title of a 2003 film based on the series. 

Chapter 12—Communication Privacy Management Theory

In 2013, Journal of Family Communication (Vol. 13, Issue 1) released a special issue exclusively focusing on CPM theory.  Articles of note in that issue include:
  • A status report on the theory (Petronio)
  • Parent/child communication privacy (Toller & McBride)
  • Family finances (Plander)
  • Parental Facebook friend requests (Child & Westermann)
  • Same-sex marriage (Lannutti)

CPM has been applied to a variety of contexts.  In some articles/writings, the theory has gone by the name “Communication Boundary Management” (CBM).


Relational & Family

Erin D. Basinger, Erin C. Wehrman, and Kelly G. McAninch, “Grief Communication and Privacy Rules: Examining the Communication of Individuals Bereaved by the Death of a Family Member,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 16, 2016, pp. 285-302.

Erin A. Brummett and Keli Ryan Steuber, “To Reveal or Conceal?: Privacy Management Processes Among Interracial Romantic Partners,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 22-44.

Joshua R. Hammonds, “A Model of Privacy Control: Examining the Criteria That Predict Emerging Adults’ Likelihood to Reveal Private Information to Their Parents,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 591-613.

Erin E. Hollenbaugh and Nichole Egbert, “A Test of Communication Privacy Management Theory in Cross-Sex Friendships,” Ohio Communication Journal, Vol. 47, 2009, pp. 113-136.

Carrie D. Kennedy-Lightsey and Brandi N. Frisby, “Parental Privacy Invasion, Family Communication Patterns, and Perceived Ownership of Private Information,” Communication Reports, Vol. 29, 2016, pp. 75-86.

Andrew M. Ledbetter, Sarah Heiss, Kenny Sibal, Eimi Lev, Michele Battle-Fisher, and Natalie Shubert, “Parental Invasive and Children’s Defensive Behaviors at Home and Away at College: Mediated Communication and Privacy Boundary Management,” Communication Studies, Vol. 61, 2010, pp. 184-204.

Keli Ryan Steuber and Rachel M. McLaren, “Privacy Recalibration in Personal Relationships: Rule Usage Before and After an Incident of Privacy Turbulence,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 63, 2015, pp. 345-364.

 

LGBTQ Applications

Diana Breshears and Rebecca DiVerniero, “Communication Privacy Management Among Adult Children With Lesbian and Gay Parents,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 573-590.

Rose Helens-Hart, “Females’ (Non)Disclosure of Minority Sexual Identities in the Workplace From a Communication Privacy Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, Vol. 68, 2017, pp. 607-623.

Tim McKenna-Buchanan, Stevie Munz, and Justin Rudnick, “To Be or Not To Be Out in the Classroom: Exploring Communication Privacy Management Strategies of Lesbian, Gay, and Queer College Teachers,” Communication Education, Vol. 64, 2015, pp. 280-300.

Zhiwen Xiao, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen, and Zhengzhu Tang, “Using Communication Privacy Management Theory to Examine HIV Disclosure to Sexual Partners/Spouses Among PLHIV in Guangxi,” AIDS Care, Vol. 27, 2015, pp. 73-82.

 

Computers/ Technology

Jeffrey T. Child, Paul M. Haridakis, and Sandra Petronio, “Blogging Privacy Rule Orientations, Privacy Management, and Content Deletion Practices: The Variability of Online Privacy Management Activity at Different Stages of Social Media Use,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, 2012, pp. 1859-1872.

Ralf De Wolf, “Group Privacy Management Strategies and Challenges in Facebook: A Focus Group Study Among Flemish Youth Organizations,” Cyberpsychology,Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 17-32.

Bethany D. Frampton and Jeffrey T. Child, “Friend or Not to Friend: Coworker Facebook Friend Requests as an Application of Communication Privacy Management Theory,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 29, 2013, pp. 2257-2264.

Heath Wesley Hooper, “An Investigation of the Role Communication Privacy Management Theory has in the Development of Social Media Policies,” Sport Journal, 2017, Vol. 19.

Airi Lampinen, “Hosting Together via Couchsurfing: Privacy Management in the Context of Network Hospitality,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 1581-1600.

Jessica Vitak, “A Digital Path to Happiness? Applying Communication Privacy Management Theory to Mediated Interactions,” in The Routledge Handbook of Media Use and Well-Being: International Perspectives on Theory and Research on Positive Media Effects, Leonard Reinecke and Mary Beth Oliver (eds.), Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2017, pp. 274-287.

Kenneth C. C. Yang, Amanda Pulido, and Yowei Kang, “Exploring the Relationship between Privacy Concerns and Social Media Use among College Students: A Communication Privacy Management Perspective,” Intercultural Communication Studies, Vol. 25, 2016, pp. 46-62.

 

Workplace & Educational

Stephanie A. Smith and Steven R. Brunner, “To Reveal or Conceal: Using Communication Privacy Management Theory to Understand Disclosures in the Workplace,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol.31, 2017, pp. 429-446.

Jason L. Snyder, “E-Mail Privacy in the Workplace: A Boundary Regulation Perspective,” Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 47, 2010, pp. 266-294.

Jason L. Snyder and Karen M. Cornetto, “Employee Perceptions of E-mail Monitoring from a Boundary Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, Vol. 60, 2009, pp. 476-492.

 

Health Communication/ Cross- cultural applications

Jennifer J. Bute and Tennley A. Vik, “Privacy Management as Unfinished Business: Shifting Boundaries in the Context of Infertility,” Communication Studies, Vol. 61, 2010, pp. 1-20.

Anna R. Herrman and Kelly E. Tenzek, “Communication Privacy Management: A Thematic Analysis of Revealing and Concealing Eating Disorders in an Online Community,” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, Vol. 18, 2017, pp. 54-63.

Masaki Matsunaga, “Individual Dispositions and Interpersonal Concerns Underlying Bullied Victims’ Self-Disclosure in Japan and the US,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 27, 2010, pp. 1124-1148.

Nothando Ngwenya, Moraq Farquhar, and Gail Ewing, “Sharing Bad News of a Lung Cancer Diagnosis: Understanding Through Communication Privacy Management Theory,” Psycho-Oncology, Vol. 25, 2016, pp. 913-918.

Rauscher, E. A., & Durham, W. T. (2015). “As Long As You're Sure You Don't Want Any More Children”: Men's Collective Boundary Coordination of Information About Their Affirmative Vasectomy Decision. Communication Studies, Vol. 66, 186-203. doi:10.1080/10510974.2014.930917

Lynsey K. Romo, “How Formerly Overweight and Obese Individuals Negotiate Disclosure of Their Weight Loss. Health Communication,” Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 1145-1154.

Stephanie A. Smith and Steven R. Brunner, “The Great Whoosh: Connecting an Online Personal Health Narrative and Communication Privacy Management,” Health Communication, Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 12-21.

Chapter 13—Media Multiplexity Theory

Theoretical considerations

Jen Eden and Alice E. Veksler, “Relational Maintenance in the Digital Age: Implicit Rules and Multiple Modalities,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 64, 2016, pp. 119-144.

Eszter Hargittai and Y.-L. Patrick Hsieh, “From Dabblers to Omnivores: A Typology of Social Network Site Usage,” in A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites (Zizi Papacharissi, ed.), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 146-168.

Laura Stafford and Joshua D. Hillyer, “Information and Communication Technologies in Personal Relationships,” Review Of Communication, Vol. 12, 2012, pp. 290-312.

Samuel Hardman Taylor, Andrew M. Ledbetter, and Joseph P. Mazer, “Initial Specification and Empirical Test of Media Enjoyment Theory,” Communication Research, 2017 (published online before print).

 

Family and Intergenerational issues

Michael Chan, “Multimodal Connectedness and Quality of Life: Examining the Influences of Technology Adoption and Interpersonal Communication on Well-Being Across the Life Span,” Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 20, 2015, pp. 3-18.

Justin Peer, “Parent-Emerging Adult Relationships in the Digital Age: A Family Systems Theoretical Perspective,” in Identity, Sexuality, and Relationships Among Emeging Adults in the Digital Age (Michelle F. Wright, ed.), IGI Global, Hershey, PA, 2017, pp. 112-127.

Jennifer Schon, “‘Dad Doesn’t Text’: Examining How Parents’ Use of Information Communication Technologies Influences Satisfaction Among Emerging Adult Children,” Emerging Adulthood, Vol. 2, 2014, pp. 304-312.

Samuel Hardman Taylor and Andrew M. Ledbetter, “Extending Media Multiplexity Theory to the Extended Family: Communication Satisfaction and Tie Strength as Moderators of Violations of Media Use Expectations,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 1369-1387.

 

Friendship

Nathan Miczo, Theresa Mariani, and Crystal Donahue, “The Strength of Strong Ties: Media Multiplexity, Communication Motives, and the Maintenance of Geographically Close Friendships,” Communication Reports, Vol. 24, 2011, pp. 12-24.

Erin K. Ruppel, Tricia J. Burke, and Maura R. Cherney, “Channel Complementarity and Multiplexity in Long-Distance Friends’ Patterns of Communication Technology Use,” New Media & Society, 2017 (published online before print).

 

Facebook as relational maintenance

Michael G. Blight, Kristy Jagiello, and Erin K. Ruppel, “‘Same Stuff Different Day:’ A Mixed-Method Study of Support Seeking on Facebook,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 53, 2015, pp. 366-373.

Andrew M. Ledbetter and Joseph P. Mazer, “Do Online Communication Attitudes Mitigate the Association Between Facebook Use and Relational Interdependence? An Extension of Media Multiplexity Theory,” New Media & Society, Vol. 16, 2014, pp. 806-822.

Namkee Park, Seungyoon Lee, and Jang Hyun Kim, “Individuals’ Personal Network Characteristics and Patterns of Facebook Use: A Social Network Approach,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, 2012, pp. 1700-1707.

Artemio Ramirez, Jr., Erin M. Sumner, and John Spinda, “The Relational Reconnection Function of Social Network Sites,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 807-825.

 

Other applied contexts

Hui-Jung Chang and J. David Johnson, “Communication Networks as Predictors of Organizational Members' Media Choices,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2001, pp. 349-369.

Gustavo Mesch and Ilan Talmud, “The Quality of Online and Offline Relationships: The Role of Multiplexity and Duration of Social Relationships,” Information Society, Vol. 22, 2006, pp. 137-148.

Gustavo S. Mesch, Ilan Talmud, and Anabel Quan-Haase, “Instant Messaging Social Networks: Individual, Relational, and Cultural Characteristics,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 29, 2012, pp. 736-759.

Shu-Fen Tseng, Yuli Patrick Hsieh, “The Implications of Networked Individualism for Social Participation: How Mobile Phone, E-mail, and IM Networks Afford Social Participation for Rural Residents in Taiwan,” American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 59, 2015, pp. 1157-1172.

Katrien Van Cleemput, “‘I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You’: A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media,” Bulletin Of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 30, 2010, pp. 75-85.

 

 

Chapter 14—Social Judgment Theory

For the original statement of the theory, see Muzafer Sherif and Carl Hovland, Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1961.

Healthcare 

Nili Ben-Avi, Sharon Toker, and Daniel Heller, “‘If Stress is Good for Me, It's Probably Good for You Too’: Stress Mindset and Judgment of Others' Strain,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 74, 2018, pp. 98-110.

Jeffrey D. Robinson, Janice L. Raup-Krieger, Greg Burke, Valerie Weber, and Brett Oesterling,  “The Relative Influence of Patients’ Pre-Visit Global Satisfaction with Medical Care and Patients’ Post-Visit Satisfaction with Physicians’ Communication,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 25, 2008, pp. 1-9.

 

Politics

Matthew Barnidge, “Exposure to Political Disagreement in Social Media Versus Face-to-Face and Anonymous Online Settings,” Political Communication, Vol. 34, pp. 302-321.

Christina Mölders, Niels Van Quaquebeke, and Maria Paola Paladino, “Consequences of Politicians' Disrespectful Communication Depend on Social Judgment Dimensions and Voters' Moral Identity,” Political Psychology, Vol. 38, 2017, pp. 119-135.

Sandi W. Smith, Charles K. Atkin, Dennis Martell, Rebecca Allen, and Larry Hembroff, “A Aocial Judgment Theory Approach to Conducting Formative Research in a Social Norms Campaign,”  Communication Theory, Vol. 16, 2006, pp. 141- 152.

 

Organizations and business

Alex Bitektine, “Toward a Theory of Social Judgments of Organizations: The Case of Legitimacy, Reputation, and Status,” Academy Of Management Review, Vol. 36, 2011, pp. 151-179.

Yuri Mishina, Emily S. Block, and Michael J. Mannor, “The Path Dependence of Organizational Reputation: How Social Judgment Influences Assessments of Capability and Character,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 33, 2012, pp. 459-477.

 

Theoretical comparisons

Hee Sun Park, Timothy R. Levine, Catherine Y. Kingsley Westerman, Tierney Orfgen, and Sarah Foregger, “The Effects of Argument Quality and Involvement Type on Attitude Formation and Attitude Change: A Test of Dual?Process and Social Judgment Predictions,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 33, pp. 81-102.

Shasha Teng, Kok Wei Khong, and Wei Wei Goh, “Persuasive Communication: A Study of Major Attitude-Behavior Theories in a Social Media Context,” Journal of Internet Commerce, Vol. 14, 2015, pp. 42-64.

 

Other applied contexts of SJT

Nancy DiTunnariello and Laura C. Farrell, “‘Your Life Sucks,’ But I Think ‘You Deserved It’: Social Approval and Disapproval of Messages on FMyLife.com,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 44, pp. 220-229.

Gerard T. Kyle, James D. Absher, and Alana R. Graefe, “The Moderating Role of Place Attachment on the Relationship Between Attitudes Toward Fees and Spending Preferences,” Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 25, 2003, pp. 33-50.

Moon J. Lee and Jung Won Chun, “Reading Others’ Comments and Public Opinion Poll Results on Social Media: Social Judgment and Spiral of Empowerment,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 65, 2016, pp. 479-487.

Joy N. Rumble, Lisa K. Lundy, Brittany Martin, and Sandra Anderson, “Gender and GMOs: Understanding Floridians attitudes toward GMOs through the lens of Social Judgment Theory,” Journal of Applied Communications, Vol. 101, 2017, http://newprairiepress.org/jac/vol101/iss4/1/.

 

Other teaching ideas for SJT

Jessica Mallard, “Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 197-202.

Leslie Ramos Salazar, “Changing Resistant Audience Attitudes Using Social Judgment Theory’s ‘Anchor’ Point Perspectives,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 31, 2017, pp. 90-93.

Chapter 15—Elaboration Likelihood Model

For a brief history of social influence research, see William D. Crano, “Milestones in the Psychological Analysis of Social Influence,” Group Dynamics, Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 68-80.

 

Applied contexts of ELM

Allison Lazard and Lucy Atkinson, “Putting Environmental Infographics Center Stage: The Role of Visuals at the Elaboration Likelihood Model’s Critical Point of Persuasion,” Science Communication, Vol. 37, 2015, pp. 6-33.

Edith MacDonald, Taciano Milfont, and Michael Gavin, “Applying the ElaborationLikelihoodModel to Increase Recall of Conservation Messages and Elaboration by Zoo Visitors,” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 24, 2016, pp. 866-881.

Anna R. McAlister and Danielle Bargh, “Dissuasion: The Elaboration Likelihood Model and Young Children,” Young Consumers, Vol. 17, 2016, pp. 210-225.

 

Organizational and Health Communication applications

Thomas H. Allison, Blakley C. Davis, Justin W. Webb, Jeremy C. Short, “Persuasion in crowdfunding: An elaboration likelihood model of crowdfunding performance,” Journal of Business VenturingVol. 32, 2017, pp. 707-725.

Nilesh S. Bhutada, Brent L. Rollins, and Matthew Perri III, “Impact of Animated Spokes-Characters in Print Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach,” Health Communication, Vol. 32, 2017, pp. 391-400.

Amy Bleakley, Amy B. Jordan, Michael Hennessy, Karen Glanz, Andrew Strasser, and Sarah Vaala, “Do Emotional Appeals in Public Service Advertisements Influence Adolescents’ Intention to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?,” Journal of Health Communication, Vol. 20, 2015, pp. 938-948.

John A. Fortunato, “How the Citi Olympic Sponsorship Strategy Uses the Jnowledge of the Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Journal Of Financial Services Marketing, Vol. 21, 2016, pp. 76-85.

John Fortunato, “Sponsorship and the Elaboration Likelihood Model: BMW's 2014 Winter Olympic Brand Strategy,” Journal Of Brand Strategy, Vol. 4, 2015, pp. 83-95.

Jing-Ti Han, Qun Chen, Jian-Guo Liu, Xiao-Lan Luo, and Weiguo Fan, “The Persuasion of Borrowers’ Voluntary Information in Peer to Peer Lending: An Empirical Study Based on Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 78, 2018, pp. 200-214.

 

Computer-mediated and Hashtag activism

Lanier Frush Holt, “Using the Elaboration Likelihood Model to Explain to Whom ‘#Black Lives Matter’...and to Whom it Does Not,” Journalism Practice, Vol. 12, 2018, pp. 146-161.

Hyang-Sook Kim and Mun-Young Chung, “It Matters Who Shares and Who Reads: Persuasive Outcomes of Location Check-ins on Facebook,” International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 16, 2018, pp. 135-152.

Gayle Kerr, Don E. Schultz, Philip J. Kitchen, Frank J. Mulhern, and Park Beede, “Does Traditional Advertising Theory Apply to the Digital World? A Replication Analysis Questions the Relevance of the Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 55, 2015, pp. 390-400.

Yoon-Joo Lee and Hoyoung Ahn, “The Interaction Effects of Social Norms and Dissatisfaction Toward Drinking on Willingness to Visit and Comment on Binge Drinking Prevention Facebook,” Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 23, 2017, pp. 813-833.

 

Theoretical concerns and comparisons

Jaehwan Kwon and Dhananjay Nayakankuppam, “Strength without Elaboration: The Role of Implicit Self-Theories in Forming and Accessing Attitudes,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 42, 2015, pp. 316-339.

Alfred Kobsa, Hichang Cho, and Bart P. Knijnenburg, “The Effect of Personalization Provider Characteristics on Privacy Attitudes and Behaviors: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach,” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 67, 2016, pp. 2587-2606.

 

Other relevant articles by Richard Petty or Cacioppo

Pablo Briñol, Richard E. Petty, Geoffrey R. O. Durso, and Derek D. Rucker, “Power and Persuasion: Processes by Which Perceived Power Can Influence Evaluative Judgments,” Review of General Psychology, Vol. 21, 2017, 223-241.

John T. Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, and Richard E. Petty, “The Neuroscience of Persuasion: A Review with an Emphasis on Issues and Opportunities,” Social Neuroscience, Vol. 13, 2018, pp. 129-172.

Beatriz Gandarillas, Pablo Briñol, Richard E. Petty, Darío Díaz, “Attitude Change as a Function of the Number of Words in Which Thoughts are Expressed,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 74, 2018, pp. 196-211.

Javier Horcajo, Pablo Briñol, and Richard E. Petty, “Majority Versus Minority Source Status and Persuasion: Processes of Primary and Secondary Cognition,” in Majority and Minority Influence: Societal Meaning and Cognitive Elaboration, Stamos Papastamou, Antonis Gardikiotis, and Gerasimos Prodromitis (eds.), Routledge/Taylor & Francis, New York, 2017, pp. 98-116.

Richard E. Petty, “Two Routes to Persuasion,” in Scientists Making a Difference: One Hundred Eminent Behavioral and Brain Scientists Talk About Their Most Important Contributions, Robert J. Sternberg, Susan T. Fiske, and Donald J. Foss (eds.), Cambride University Press, New York, 2016, pp. 373-376.

S. Christian Wheeler, Richard E. Petty, and George Y. Bizer, “Self-Schema Matching and Attitude Change: Situational and Dispositional Determinants of Message Elaboration,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, 2005, pp. 787-797.

 

Emotions in persuasion

David DeSteno, Richard E. Petty, Derek D. Rucker, Duane T. Wegener, and Julia Braverman, “Discrete Emotions and Persuasion: The Role of Emotion-Induced Expectancies,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 86, 2004, pp. 43-56.

Jonathan Hasford, David M. Hardesty, and Blair Kidwell, “More Than a Feeling: Emotional Contagion Effects in Persuasive Communication,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 52, 2015, pp. 836-847.

Fang-Chi Lu and Jayati Sinha, “Speaking to the Heart: Social Exclusion and Reliance on Feelings Versus Reasons in Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 27, 2017, pp. 409-421.

Gerben A. VanKleef, Helma van den Berg, and Marc W. Heerdink, “The Persuasive Power of Emotions: Effects of Emotional Expressions on Attitude Formation and Change,” Journal of Applied Psychology100, 2015, pp. 1124-1142.

 

Ethical reflections

For the classical source for the analogy between the lover and the persuader, see Plato’s Phaedrus

For a discussion that parallels the chapter’s discussion of  “topology of false (unethical) lovers”, see Wayne Brockriede, “Arguers as Lovers,” Philosophy & Rhetoric, Vol. 5, 1972, pp. 1-11. 

Chapter 16—Cognitive Dissonance

For an intriguing application of cognitive dissonance theory to HIV/AIDS prevention, see Richard M. Perloff, Persuading People to Have Safer Sex: Applications of Social Science to the AIDS Crisis, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2001, pp. 82-83. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Amanda S. Hinojosa, William L. Gardner, H. Jack Walker, Claudia Cogliser, and Daniel Gullifor, “A Review of Cognitive Dissonance Theory in Management Research: Opportunities for Further Development,” Journal of Management, Vol. 43, 2017, pp. 170-199.

Kevin T. Mahoney, “Equity Theory at 50,” TIP: The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, Vol. 51, 2013, pp. 158-161.

April McGrath, “Dealing with Dissonance: A Review of Cognitive Dissonance Reduction,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 11, 2017, published online only.

Shasha Teng, Kok Wei Khong, and Wei Wei Goh, “Persuasive Communication: A Study of Major Attitude-Behavior Theories in a Social Media Context,” Journal of Internet Commerce, 14, 2015, pp. 42-64.

 

Applied research using cognitive dissonance:

Chyng Feng Sun and Erica Scharrer, “Staying True to Disney: College Students’ Resistance to Criticism of The Little Mermaid,” Communication Review, Vol. 7, 2004, pp. 35-55.

Mary E. Kaplar and Anne K. Gordon, “The Enigma of Altruistic Lying: Perspective Differences in What Motivates and Justifies Lie Telling Within Romantic Relationships,” Personal Relationships, Vol. 11, 2004, pp. 489-507.

Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick and Simon M. Lavis, “Selecting Serious or Satirical, Supporting or Stirring News? Selective Exposure to Partisan versus Mockery News Online Videos,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 67, 2017, pp. 54-81.

David C. Matz and Wendy Wood, “Cognitive Dissonance in Groups: The Consequences of Disagreement,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 88, 2005, pp. 22-37.

Blake M. McKimmie, “CognitiveDissonancein Groups,” Social & Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 202-212.

Julie A. Schumacher and Amy M. Smith Slep, “Attitudes and Dating Aggression: A Cognitive Dissonance Approach,” Prevention Science, Vol. 5, 2004, pp. 231-243.

Mark Ward Sr., “Cognition, Culture, and Charity: Sociolinguistics and 'Donor Dissonance’ in a Baptist Denomination,” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, Vol. 26, 2015, pp. 574-603.

 

Ethical Considerations

Blake M. McKimmie, Deborah J. Terry, Michael A. Hogg, Anthony S. R. Manstead, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje, “I’m a Hypocrite, but So is Everyone Else: Group Support and the Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance,” Group Dynamics, Vol. 7, 2003, pp. 214-224.

Zhi Xing Xu, Hing Keung Ma, Yue Wang, and Jian Li, “Maybe I Am Not as Moral as I Thought: Calibrating Moral Identity After Immoral Action,” Current Psychology, 2018 (published online before print).

 

Chapter 17—Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making

Theoretical considerations

Dennis S. Gouran, “Has Communication Research Made a Difference? A Response to the Respondents,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 38, 2010, pp. 435-442.

Lise VanderVoort, “Functional and Causal Explanations in Group Communication Research,” Communication Theory, Vol. 12, 2002, pp. 469-486.

Gwen M. Wittenbaum, Andrea B. Hollingshead, Paul B. Paulus, Randy Y. Hirokawa, Deborah G. Ancona, Randall S. Peterson, Karen A. Jehn, and Kay Yoon, “The Functional Perspective as a Lens for Understanding Groups,” Small Group Research, Vol. 35, 2004, pp. 17-43.

 

Applied contexts

Peter DeScioli and Robert Kurzban, “The Company You Keep: Friendship Decisions from a Functional Perspective,” in Social Judgment and Decision Making, Joachim I. Krueger (ed.), Psychology Press, New York, 2012, pp. 209-225.

Jennifer N. Ervin, Joseph A. Bonito, and Joann Keyton, “Convergence of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Processes Across Group Meetings,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 84, 2017, pp. 200-220.

Andrew P. Knight and Noah Eisenkraft, “Positive is Usually Good, Negative is Not Always Bad: The Effects of Group Affect on Social Integration and Task Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 100, 2015, pp. 1214-1227.

Elaine M. Wittenberg-Lyles, Ginnifer Cie' Gee, Debra Parker Oliver, and George Demiris, “What Patients and Families Don't Hear: Backstage Communication in Hospice Interdisciplinary Team Meetings,” Journal of Housing for the Elderly, Vol. 23, 2009, pp. 92-105.

 

Habermas and discourse ethics

For further discussion of Habermas, see Karen A. Foss, "Habermas," in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Taylor & Francis, New York, 2010, pp. 309-11. 

The journal Communication Theory published a special issue on Habermas in 2007 (Vol. 17, Issue 4).

Walter Fisher offers a brief critique of Habermas in: Walther R. Fisher, Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action, University of South Carolina Press, 1989, pp. 91-92. 

Chapter 18—Symbolic Convergence Theory

For further discussion of Bormann’s work, see Sonja K. Foss, “Fantasy-Theme Criticism,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 5th ed, Waveland, Long Grove, IL, 2018, pp. 105-140. 

For a provocative book-length application of Bormann’s notion of symbolic convergence to the culture of a small group, see Moya Ann Ball, Vietnam-on-the-Potomac, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1992.

  • A condensed version of this study is Moya Ann Ball, “Vacillating About Vietnam: Secrecy, Duplicity, and Confusion in the Communication of President Kennedy and His Advisors,” in Group Communication in Context: Studies of Natural Groups, Lawrence R. Frey (ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1994,  pp. 181-198. 

Another excellent book-length application is Mara B. Adelman and Lawrence R. Frey, The Fragile Community: Living Together with AIDS, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1997. (This book also overlaps nicely with the bona fide group perspective presented in chapter 17 on the functional perspective).

 

Theoretical considerations

For a critique of symbolic convergence theory, see Joshua Gunn, “Refiguring Fantasy: Imagination and its Decline in U.S. Rhetorical Studies” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 89, 2003, pp. 41-60. 

  • For a response to Gunn’s article, see Ernest G. Bormann, John F. Cragan, and Donald C. Shields, “Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 89, pp. 366-372.
  • Gunn then responded to their response: Joshua Gunn, “Response,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 89, p. 373.

Alaina C. Zanin, Carrisa S. Hoelscher, and Michael W. Kramer, “Extending SymbolicConvergenceTheory: A Shared Identity Perspective of a Team’s Culture,” Small Group Research. Vol. 47, 2016, pp. 438-472.

 

Applied contexts of Bormann’s theory and fantasy theme analysis

Aubrie S. Adams, “Needs Met Through Role-Playing Games: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of Dungeons & Dragons,” Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research, Vol. 12, 2013, pp. 69-86.

Dawn O. Braithwaite, Paul Schrodt, and Jody Koenig Kellas, “Symbolic Convergence Theory: Communication, Dramatizing Messages, and Rhetorical Visions in Families,” in Engaging Theories in Family Communication, Dawn O Braithwaite and Leslie A. Baxter (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006, pp. 146-161.

Michael E. Burns, Laura C. Farrell, Judy C. Pearson, and Derek A. Jorgenson, “Spirituality's Influence on Interpersonal Competence and Friend Group Satisfaction,” Journal of the Communication, Speech & Theatre Association of North Dakota, Vol. 29, 2016/2017, pp. 28-41.

Margaret E. Duffy and Janis Teruggi Page, “Does Political Humor Matter? You Betcha! Comedy TV's Performance of the 2008 Vice Presidential Debate,” Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 545-565.

Amanda Hinnant and Elizabeth Hendrickson, “Rhetorical Visions of Health: A Fantasy-Theme Analysis of Celebrity Articles,” Celebrity Studies, Vol. 3, 2012, 197-212.

Janis Teruggi Page, Margaret Duffy, Cynthia Frisby, and Gregory Perreault, “Richard Sherman Speaks and Almost Breaks the Internet: Race, Media, and Football,” Howard Journal of Communications, Vol. 27, 2016, pp. 270-289.

Brian Simmons, “A Fantasy Theme Analysis of Ex-Christians' Online Deconversion Narratives,” Northwest Journal of Communication, Vol. 42, 2014, pp. 117-141.

Chris Underation, “Seeding the Vision: Symbolic Convergence Theory and Aimee Semple McPherson,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 20, 2012, pp. 274-289.

Fred Vultee, “Man-Child in the White House: The Discursive Construction of Barack Obama in Reader Comments at foxnews.com,” Journalism Studies, Vol. 13, 2012, pp. 54-70.

 

Cross-cultural applications of SCT

Verónica Calvillo, “Symbolic Convergence in Bracero Corrido Narratives,” Aztlan, Vol. 42, 2017, pp. 99-126.

John L. Marambio and Chad Tew, “Clash in Paradise: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of A Day Without a Mexican,” Journal of American Culture, Vol. 29, 2006, pp. 475-492.

Elaine McKewon, “Talking Points Ammo: The Use of Neoliberal Think Tank Fantasy Themes to Delegitimise Scientific Knowledge of Climate Change in Australian Newspapers,” Journalism Studies, Vol. 13, 2012, pp. 277-297.

Mei Wu and Wen-bo Zhu, “Rise of China or Western Conspiracy? A Fantasy Theme Analysis,” China Media Research, Vol. 13, 2017, pp. 23-36.

Demi Simi and Jonathan Matusitz, “War Rape Survivors of the Second Congo War: A Perspective from Symbolic Convergence Theory,” Africa Review, Vol. 6, 2014, pp. 81-93.

Emil B. Towner, “Transcripts of Tragedy and Truths: An Analysis of Rwanda's Genocide Trial Documents,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 23, 2015, pp. 284-297.

 

Chapter 19—Cultural Approach to Organizations

If you enjoy Pacanowsky’s work, we recommend “Postscript: A Small-Town Cop: Communication In, Out, and About a Crisis,” Communication and Organizations: An Interpretive Approach, ed. Linda Putnam and Michael Pacanowsky (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983), 261-82. 

Paul Schrodt provides an empirical examination of the relationship between group and individual identity in “The Relationship Between Organizational Identification and Organizational Culture: Employee Perceptions of Culture and Identification in a Retail Sales Organization,” Communication Studies 53 (Summer 2002): 189-202.

As Linda Smircich's comments suggest, the tension between pragmatically based research and ethnography free of management constraints and agendas is a significant issue in the field of organizational communication.  Nick Trujillo's “Corporate Philosophy and Professional Baseball: (Re)defining the Texas Rangers,” Case Studies in Organizational Communication, ed. Beverly Davenport Sypher (New York: Guilford, 1990), 87-110, exemplifies the tension.  Although the article is presented as a scholarly case study of the team, it also functions as a public-relations piece for its management, celebrating the efforts of top officers to alter the corporation's culture.  Trujillo, who co-authored several pieces with Pacanowsky, demonstrates the difficulty of serving two masters.  We particularly recommend this piece for those interested in athletic organizations. 

 

Organizational Stories

Rosemary A. Brander, Margo Paterson, and Yolande E. Chan, “Fostering Change in Organizational Culture Using a Critical Ethnographic Approach,” The Qualitative Report, Vol. 17, 2012, pp. 1-27.

Barbara Czarniawska, Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity, University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Paul Collier, “The Cultural Foundations of Economic Failure: A Conceptual Toolkit,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 126, 2016, pp. 5-24.

Anne-Laure Fayard and John Van Maanen, “Making Culture Visible: Reflections on Corporate Ethnography,” Journal of Organizational Ethnography, Vol. 4, 2015, pp. 4-27.

Cristian Odagiu and Marius Pi?urlea, “Organizational Change Management: A Cultural Approach,” Proceedings of the Scientific Conference AFASES, May 2012, pp. 157-163.

 

Applied contexts

Diane Gavin, “Starbucks Exceptionalism: An Institutional Ethnographic Exploration of Coffee Culture in America,” Journal of Psychological Issues In Organizational Culture, Vol. 4, 2013, pp. 44-58.

John Gribas and Cal W. Downs, “Metaphoric Manifestations of Talking ‘Team’ with Team Novices,” Communication Studies, Vol.53, 2002, pp. 112-28.

Sherwyn P. Morreale and Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak, “Organizational Trust in Cultures with a History of Distrust: A Qualitative Study of Polish and Russian Leaders’ Perspectives and Experiences,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 44, 2015, pp. 27-43.

Heather C. Trepal, Ioana Boie, and Victoria E. Kress, “A Relational Cultural Approach to Working with Clients with Eating Disorders,”Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 90, 2012, pp. 346-356.

 

Clifford Geertz

Check out Geertz’s autobiographical piece, which provides a summary both of his career and the field of cultural anthropology in general: Clifford Geertz, “An Inconstant Profession: The Anthropological Life in Interesting Times,” Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 31, 2002, pp. 1-19.

 

Other pieces of note:

Beth Eddy, “Learning to Understand Others: The Pragmatic Rhetoric of Ethnography and Religious Ethics in Clifford Geertz’s Works and Lives,” Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, Vol. 22, 2014, pp. 137-157.

Clifford Geertz, “Shifting Aims, Moving Targets: On the Anthropology of Religion,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 11, 2005, pp. 1-15.

Clifford Geertz, “What is a state if it is not a sovereign? Reflections on Politics in Complicated Places,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 45, 2004, pp. 577- 594.

Clifford Geertz, “Religion as a Cultural System,” in Language, Truth, and Religious Belief: Studies in Twentieth-Century Theory and Method in Religion, Nancy K. Frankenberry and Hans H. Penner (eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, 1999, pp. 176-217.

J. K. Gibson-Graham, “Rethinking the Economy with Thick Description and Weak Theory,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 55, 2014, pp. S147-S153.

Michael G. Peletz, “Transgenderism and Gender Pluralism in Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 47, 2006, pp. 309-340.

 

Ethnography

H. L. Goodall Jr., “Deep Play in a Poker Rally: A Sunday Among the Ferraristi of Long Island,” Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 10, 2004, pp. 731- 767. 

Miriam Dempsey Page, “Clifford Geertz and Beyond: The Interpretive Interview/Essay and Reflexive Ethnography,” 1997, available online at https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED408618.pdf

Eric D. Teman and Maria K. E. Lahman, “Broom Closet or Fish Bowl? An Ethnographic Exploration of a University Queer Center and Oneself,” Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 18, 2012, pp. 341-354.

Saskia Witteborn, Trudy Milburn, T., and Evelyn Y. Ho, “The Ethnography of Communication as Applied Methodology: Insights from Three Case Studies,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 188-194.

Chapter 20—Communicative Constitutions of Organizations

Theoretical considerations

Heather E. Canary, Maria Blevins, and Shireen S. Ghorbani, “Organizational Policy Communication Research: Challenges, Discoveries, and Future Directions,” Communication Reports, Vol. 28, 2015, pp. 48-64.

François Cooren, Frédérik Matte, Chantal Benoit-Barné, and Boris H. J. M. Brummans, “Communication as Ventriloquism: A Grounded-in-Action Approach to the Study of Organizational Tensions,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 80, 2013, pp. 255-277.

François Cooren, “Arguments for the In-Depth Study of Organizational Interactions: A Rejoinder to McPhee, Myers, and Trethewey,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 19, 2006, pp. 327-340.

Matthew A. Koschmann, Matthew G. Isbell, M. G., and Matthew L. Sanders, (2015). “Connecting Nonprofit and Communication Scholarship: A Review of Key Issues and a Meta-Theoretical Framework for Future Research,” Review of Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 200-220.

Timothy Kuhn, “Negotiating the Micro-Macro Divide: Thought Leadership from Organizational Communication for Theorizing Organization,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 26, 2012, pp. 543-584.

Karen K. Myers, “Workplace Relationships and Membership Negotiation,” in New Directions in Interpersonal Communication Research, Sandi W. Smith and Steven R. Wilson (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2010, pp. 135-156.

Mike Reed, “Is Communication Constitutive of Organization?,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 151-157.

Elizabeth D. Wilhoit, “Organizational Space and Place Beyond Container or Construction: Exploring Workspace in the Communicative Constitution of Organizations,”  Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 247-275.

 

Applied examples of CCO

Oana Brindusa Albu and Michael Etter, “Hypertextuality and Social Media: A Study of the Constitutive and Paradoxical Implications of Organizational Twitter Use,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 5-31.

Kathryn Aten and Gail Fann Thomas, “Crowdsourcing Strategizing: Communication Technology Affordances and the Communicative Constitution of Organizational Strategy,” International Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 53, pp. 148-180.

Pauline Hope Cheong, Jennie M. Hwang, and Boris H. J. M. Brummans, “Transnational Immanence: The Autopoietic Co-Constitution of a Chinese Spiritual Organization Through Mediated Communication,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 7-25.

Michal Izak, (2009). “Spirituality in Organization: A Dubious Idea (?): Historically Oriented Sensemaking in Spiritually Imbued Organizations,” Tamara Journal For Critical Organisation Inquiry, Vol. 8, 2009, pp. 73-88.

Joel O. Iverson and Robert D. McPhee, “Knowledge Management in Communities of Practice: Being True to the Character of Knowledge,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 16, 2002, pp. 259-266.

 

Karl Weick and the Information Systems Approach to Organizations

Stephen Cummings and Duncan Angwin, “Stratography: The Art of Conceptualizing and Communicating Strategy,” Business Horizons, Vol. 54, 2011, pp. 435-446.

David M. Kopp, Irena Nikolovska, Katie P. Desiderio, and Jeffrey T. Guterman, “‘Relaaax, I Remember the Recession in the Early 1980s ...’: Organizational Storytelling as a Crisis Management Tool,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 22, pp. 373-385.

Stephen A. Leybourne, “Improvisation as a Way of Dealing with Ambiguity and Complexity,” Graziadio Business Report, 2010, Vol. 13, pp. 1-7.

Sally Maitlis and Scott Sonenshein, “Sensemaking in Crisis and Change: Inspiration and Insights from Weick (1988),” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 47, 2010, pp. 551-580.

Karl E. Weick, “Reflections on Enacted Sensemaking in the Bhopal Disaster,” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 47, pp. 537-550.

 

Discussion of Organization Communication theory more generally

Jonny Holmström and Duane Truex, “Dropping Your Tools: Exploring When and How Theories Can Serve as Blinders in IS Research,” Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 28, 2011, pp. 283-294.

Robert D. McPhee and Pamela Zaug, “Organizational Theory, Organizational Communication, Organizational Knowledge, and Problematic Integration,” Journal of Communication, 51, 2001, pp. 574-591.

John A. A. Sillince, “Can CCO Theory Tell Us How Organizing is Distinct from Markets, Networking, Belonging to a Community, or Supporting a Social Movement?,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 132-138.

Chapter 21—Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations

Theoretical considerations

Stanley Deetz, “Critical Theory,” in Engaging Organizational Communication Theory:  Multiple Perspectives, Steve May and Dennis K. Mumby (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2004, pp. 85- 112.

Norman K. Denzin, “Critical Pedagogy and Democratic Life or a Radical Democratic Pedagogy,” Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies. Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 379-397.

Annette N. Markham, “Disciplining the Future: A Critical Organizational Analysis of Internet Studies,” Information Society, Vol. 21, 2005, pp. 257-267.

 

Applied contexts for Critical Theory in Organizations

Stanley Deetz, “Engagement as Co-Generative Theorizing,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 36, 2008, pp. 289-297.

Laurie K. Lewis, Amy M. Schmisseur, Keri K. Stephens, and Kathleen E. Weir, “Advice on Communicating During Organizational Change: The Content of Popular Press Books,” Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 43, 2006, pp. 113-137.

Tiina Seppälä, “A Critical Analysis of a Theoretical Debate on Power of Social Movements – a Case Study of the New Anti-War Movement,” Journal of Critical Studies In Business & Society, Vol. 2, 2011, pp. 10-29.

 

Writings by Deetz

Deetz is a very prolific writer.  Just a sampling of his works include:

Stanley Deetz, “Resistance: Would struggle by any other name be as sweet?,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 21, 2008, pp. 387-392.

Stanely Deetz and Maria Hegbloom, “Situating the Political Economy and Cultural Studies Conversation in the Processes of Living and Working,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, Vol. 4, 2007, pp. 323-326.

Robert L. Heath, W. Barnett Pearce, John Shotter, Jamse R. Taylor, Astrid Kersten, Ted Zorn, Juliet Roper, Judy Motion, and Stanley Deetz, “The Processes of Dialogue: Participation and Legitimation,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 19, 2006, pp. 341-375.

Stanley Deetz and Jennifer Simpson, “Critical Organizational Dialogue:  Open Formation and the Demand of ‘Otherness’,” in Dialogue: Theorizing Difference in Communication Studies, Rob Anderson, Leslie A. Baxter, and Kenneth N. Cissna (eds.)Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, 2004, pp. 141-158.

Stanley Deetz and Devon Brown, “Conceptualizing Involvement, Participation and Workplace Decision Processes: A Communication Theory Perspective,” in Key Issues in Organizational Communication, Dennis Tourish and Owen Hargie (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2004, pp. 172-187.

Tanni Haas and Stanley Deetz, “The Politics and Ethics of Knowledge Construction in Corporations:  Dialogic Interaction and Self-Other Relations,” in The Foundations of Management Knowledge, Paul Jeffcutt (ed.), Routledge, New York, 2004, pp. 208-230.

Tim Newton, Stan Deetz, and Mike Reed, “Responses to Social Constructionism and Critical Realism in Organization Studies,” Organization Studies, Vol. 32, 2011, pp. 7-26.

 

Additional teaching ideas

Amy Franzini, “A Final Organizational Communication Project: Using the Television Series The Office to Engage College Students,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 21, 2007, pp. 133-136.

Cerise L. Glenn, “Activism or ‘Slacktivism?’: Digital Media and Organizing for Social Change,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 29, 2015, pp. 81-85.

Anastacia Kurylo, “Teaching about Assessment in Professional Organizations,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 21, 2007, pp. 93-98.

Chapter 22—The Rhetoric

Three general resources on Aristotle’s rhetoric and its context are:

George A. Kennedy, The Art of Persuasion in Ancient Greece, Princeton University Press, 1963, pp. 82-114.

Thomas M. Conley, Rhetoric in the European Tradition, University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 13-17.

Janet M. Atwill, “Aristotle,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 26-30. 

For general information on neo-Aristotelian criticism, see Sonja K. Foss, “Neo-Aristotelian Criticism: Genesis of Rhetorical Criticism,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 5th ed., Sonja K. Foss (ed.), Waveland, Long Grove, IL, 2018, pp. 29-40.

 

Theoretical concerns

Jennifer Reilly Bluma, “Weaving Ropes with the Desert Fathers: (Re)Inventing Rhetorical Theory as Silence and Listening,” International Journal Of Listening, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 134-150.

Ronald F. Duska, “Why Business Ethics Needs Rhetoric: An Aristotelian Perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly,” Vol. 24, 2014, pp. 119-134.

Frans H. van Eemeren, “In What Sense Do Modern Argumentation Theories Relate to Aristotle? The Case of Pragma-Dialectics,” Argumentation, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 49-70.

Allison M. Prasch, “Toward a Rhetorical Theory of Deixis,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 102, 2016, pp. 166-193. (Note: This article was the 2017 recipient of NCA’s Golden Monograph Award. For advanced students who are eager to dig into the cutting edge of rhetorical scholarship, it’s a great choice for advanced reading.)

Lynda Walsh, Nathaniel A. Rivers, Jenny Rice, Laurie E. Gries, Jennifer L. Bay, Thomas Rickert, and Carolyn R. Miller, “Forum: Bruno Latour on Rhetoric,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol. 47, 2017, pp. 403-462; see especially “The Appeal(s) of Latour,” pp. 454-459.

 

Applied Contexts

Kenneth R. Chase, “Aristotle: The Good Life,” in An Encyclopedia of Communication Ethics: Goods in Contention, Ronald C. Arnett, Annette M. Holba, and Susan Mancino (eds.), Peter Lang, New York, 2018, pp. 26-30.

Peter L. Jennings and Sean T. Hannah, “Leader Ethos: How Character Contributes to the Social Influence of the Leader,” in Leader Interpersonal and Influence Skills: The Soft Skills of Leadership, Ronald E. Riggio and Sherylle J. Tan (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2014, pp. 141-172. New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Sofia Kaliarnta, “Using Aristotle’s Theory of Friendship to Classify Online Friendships: A Critical Counterview,” Ethics and Information Technology, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 65-79.

Nida Aslam Khan and Jami Moiz, “The Discourse: Doing it Differently- the Oreo Princess Campaign,” IBA Business Review, Vol. 11, 2016, pp. 85-93.

Paul A. Lucas, “The Rhetoric of Brands: How Value is Generated Without Substance,” International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, Vol. 6, 2014, pp. 18-24.

Paul Stob, “Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 98, 2012, pp. 249-271.

Alexander Tevi and Scott Koslow, “How Rhetoric Theory Informs the Creative Advertising Development Process: Reconciling Differences Between Advertising Scholarship and Practice,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 58, 2018, pp. 111-128.

 

Enthymeme

James Fredal, “Enthymemes in the Orators,” Advances in The History Of Rhetoric, Vol. 19, 2016, pp. 31-49.

 

Other teaching ideas

Nick J. Sciullo, “Using Hip-Hop Music and Music Videos to Teach Aristotle's Three Proofs,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 165-169.

Chapter 23—Dramatism

For a little inspiration and sensible advice about the nature of Burke’s theory (a theory which can feel overwhelming to students), we suggest Arthur Quinn, “Teaching Burke: Kenneth Burke and the Rhetoric of Ascent,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol. 25, 1995, pp. 231-36.  Those with an interest in intellectual history will appreciate Quinn’s effort to place Burke within the larger tradition of Western thought. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Floyd D. Anderson and Lawrence J. Prelli, “Kenneth Burke’s Agonistic Theory of Knowledge,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 82, 2018, pp. 181-193.

Robert Prus, “Kenneth Burke's Dramatistic Pragmatism: A Missing Link Between Classical Greek Scholarship and the Interactionist Study of Human Knowing and Acting,” Qualitative Sociological Review, Vol. 13, 2017, pp. 6-58.

Jennifer Richards, “Equipment for Thinking: or Why Kenneth Burke is Still Worth Reading,” Studies in Philosophy and Education, Vol. 34, 2015, pp. 363-375.

Clarke Rountree and John Rountree, “Burke's Pentad as a Guide for Symbol-Using Citizens,” Studies In Philosophy and Education, Vol. 34, 2015, pp. 349-362.

 

Applications of Burke’s theory

Barry Brummett, “What Popular Films Teach Us About Values: Locked Inside with the Rage Virus,” Journal of Popular Film and Television, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 61-67.

Amanda Nell Edgar, “R&B Rhetoric and Victim-Blaming Discourses: Exploring the Popular Press's Revision of Rihanna's Contextual Agency,” Women's Studies In Communication, Vol. 37, 2014, pp. 138-158.

Molly Hartzog, “Scapegoating in the Wild: A Burkean Analysis of Two Outdoor Adventures Gone Wrong,” Environmental Communication, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 520-538.

Mike Milford, “Kenneth Burke's Punitive Priests and the Redeeming Prophets: The NCAA, the College Sports Media, and the University of Miami Scandal,” Communication Studies, Vol. 66, 2015, pp. 45-62.

Mollie K. Murphy and Tina M. Harris, “White Innocence and Black Subservience: The Rhetoric of White Heroism in The Help,” Howard Journal Of Communications, Vol. 29, 2018, pp. 49-62.

Andrea J. Terry, “The Church Made Me Do It: Identity and Apology in Marin Foundation Video Confessionals,” Journal Of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 39, 2015, pp. 298-318.

Francesca Marie Smith and Thomas A. Hollihan, “‘Out of Chaos Breathes Creation’: Human Agency, Mental Illness, and Conservative Arguments Locating Responsibility for the Tucson Massacre,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 585-618.

Shannon Walters, “Cool Aspie Humor: Cognitive Difference and Kenneth Burke's Comic Corrective in The Big Bang Theory and Community,” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, Vol. 7, 2013, pp. 271-288.

 

Other teaching ideas

Samuel L. Head, “Teaching Grounded Audiences: Burke's Identification in Facebook and Composition,” Computers & Composition, Vol. 39, 2016, pp. 27-40.

Chapter 24—Narrative Paradigm

Walter Fisher

Other significant works written by Fisher not mentioned in the chapter include:

  • Walter R. Fisher, “The Narrative Paradigm and the Interpretation and the Assessment of Historical Texts,” Argumentation and Advocacy, Vol. 25, 1988, pp. 50-53.
  • Walter R. Fisher, “Narration, Knowledge, and the Possibility of Wisdom,” in Rethinking Knowledge: Reflections Across the Disciplines, Robert F. Goodman and Walter Fisher (ed.), State University of New York Press, Albany, 1995, pp. 169-192.

 

Narrative criticism

John F. Cragan and Donald C. Shields, Symbolic Theories in Applied Communication Research: Bormann, Burke, and Fisher, Hampton Press, New York, 1995, pp. 91-122 & 235-67. 

Sonja K. Foss, “Narrative Criticism,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 5th ed., Sonja K. Foss (ed.), Waveland, Long Grove, IL, 2018, pp. 319-366.  

Arthur Asa Berger, Narratives in Popular Culture, Media, and Everyday Life, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1997.

Teun Dubbelman, “Playing the Hero: How Games Take the Concept of Storytelling from Representation to Presentation,” Journal of Media Practice, Vol. 12, 2011, pp. 157-172

 

Theoretical and pedagogical considerations

For further information on the concept of the discourse community, see M. Jimmie Killingsworth, “Discourse Community,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 194-196.

Destiny Brady, “Theory Synthesis: A Narrative Theory for Nursing Pedagogy,” Nursing Research, Vol. 65, 2016, pp. E77-E78. (Brief abstract is located in article titled “28th Annual Scientific Sessions Abstracts.”)

Melissa Hobart, “My Best Friend's Brother's Cousin Knew This Guy Who … : Hoaxes, Legends, Warnings, and Fisher's Narrative Paradigm,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 90-93.

Ashley Rives and Allison Wynhoff Olsen, “Where's the Rhetoric?,” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 59, 2015, pp. 161-170.

 

Applied contexts of Fisher’s paradigm

Mary Angela Bock and David Alan Schneider, “The Voice of Lived Experience: Mobile Video Narratives in the Courtroom,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 20, 2017, pp. 335-350

Michael E. Burns, “Recruiting Prospective Students with Stories: How Personal Stories Influence the Process of Choosing a University,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 63, 2015, pp. 99-118.

Christopher T. Caldiero, “Crisis Storytelling: Fisher's Narrative Paradigm and News Reporting,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 9, 2007, available online at http://ac-journal.org/journal/2007/Spring/articles/storytelling.html

David Carless and Katrina Douglas, “‘In the Boat’ but ‘Selling Myself Short’: Stories, Narratives, and Identity Development in Elite Sport,” Sport Psychologist, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 27-39.

Kenneth D. Chestek, “Competing Stories: A Case Study of the Role of Narrative Reasoning in Judicial Decisions,” Legal Communication & Rhetoric: JALWD, 2012, pp. 99-137.

Eileen Hammond, “Lilly Ledbetter Teaches Us a Lesson: 2012 DNC Speech Gives Way to Public Moral Argument,” Florida Communication Journal, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 25-37.

Shari Hoppin, “Applying the Narrative Paradigm to the Vaccine Debates,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 45-55.

L. M. Lareau and Nathan Miczo, N. “Exploring the Relationship Between Online Health Information Seeking Motivations and Patient Narratives for Orthopedic Practice Web Sites,” Ohio Communication Journal, Vol. 55, 2017, pp. 131-145.

William R. Saltzman, Robert S. Pynoos, Patricia Lester, Christopher M. Layne, and William R. Beardslee, “Enhancing Family Resilience Through Family Narrative Co-Construction,” Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, Vol. 16, 2013, pp. 294-310.

Chapter 25—Media Ecology

For a broad and deep introduction to the field of media ecology, see Dennis D. Cali, Mapping Media Ecology: Introduction to the Field, Peter Lang, New York, 2017.

McLuhan fans may enjoy a book that he co-authored with his son:

Marshall McLuhan and Eric McLuhan, Laws of Media: The New Science, University of Toronto Press, 1988. 

A particularly scholarly treatment of the history of communication technology (in the tradition of Walter Ong) is Ronald J. Deibert, Parchment, Printing, and Hypermedia: Communication in World Order Transformation, University of Columbia Press, New York, 1997.

 

Theoretical considerations

Corey Anton, “‘Heating Up' and 'Cooling Down': Re-appraising McLuhan's Hot–Cool Distinction,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 343-348.

Dennis D. Cali, “The sacramental view of Marshall McLuhan, Walter Ong and James Carey,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 16, 2017, pp. 139-156.

Curry Chandler, “Marshall Arts: An Inventory of Common Criticisms of McLuhan’s Media Studies,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 10, 2012, pp. 279-293.

Eric Jenkins and Peter Zhang, “Deleuze the Media Ecologist? Extensions of and Advances on McLuhan,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 15, 2016, pp. 55-72.

John Durham Peters, “‘You Mean My Whole Fallacy Is Wrong’: On Technological Determinism,” Representations, Vol. 140, 2017, pp. 10-26.

Jonathan Sterne, “Media Analysis Beyond Content,” Journal of Visual Culture, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 100-103.

Laureano Ralón, “From Global Village to Global Theater: The Late McLuhan as a Philosopher of Difference, Sense, and Multiplicities,” Review of Communication, Vol. 17, 2017, pp. 303-319.

Lance Strate, “Understanding the Message of Understanding Media,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 25, 2017, pp. 244-254.

 

Applied contexts

Martin Hirst, “One Tweet Does Not a Revolution Make: Technological Determinism, Media and Social Change,” Global Media Journal: Australian Edition, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 1-11.

Daniel R. McCarthy, “Technology and ‘the International’ or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Determinism,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 470-490.

Eric McLuhan and Peter Zhang, “Media Ecology in a Jazz Mode,” China Media Research, Vol. 13, 2017, pp. 57-69.

Eric McLuhan and Peter Zhang, “Media Ecology: Illuminations,” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 459-475.

Michael Plugh, “Global Village: Globalization Through a Media Ecology Lens,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 219-235.

 

Neil Postman

For other work by Neil Postman, see his provocative tirade Amusing Ourselves to Death (New York: Penguin, 1986), which seeks to expose the strong entertainment bias inherent in the technology of television.  

Charles Scott Rader, Roger Brooksbank, Zahed Subhan, Clinton D. Lanier, Jr., Daniel J. Flint, and Nadia Vorontsova, “Toward a Theory of Adoption of Mobile Technology Devices: An Ecological Shift in Life-Worlds,” Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 20, 2016, pp. 38-61.

Ellen Rose, “As Much Through Manner as Through Matter: The 'Postmanist' Approach to Social Research,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 37-47.

Niall P. Stephens, “Toward a More Substantive Media Ecology: Postman’s Metaphor Versus Posthuman Futures,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 8, 2014, pp. 2027-2045.

 

Chapter 26—Semiotics

An excellent supplementary text for this chapter is Jonathan Bignell, Media Semiotics: An Introduction, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, 1997. 

A good source for articles on semiotics is the American Journal of Semiotics

In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see:

  • James S. Baumlin, “Barthes,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 66-67.
  • Sue Hum, “Semiotics,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 666-667.
  • Catherine Lappas, “Signified/Signifier/Signifying,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, p. 673.

  

General discussion of semiotics

Mutlu Er, “The Active Role of the Recipient in Decoding an Advertisement Respectively a Poster,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 70, 2013, pp. 52-60.

Lucy O’Meara, “‘Whose Contemporary Am I?’: Recent Writing on Roland Barthes,” Paragraph, Vol. 39, 2016, pp. 369-378.

Susan Petrilli, The Self as a Sign, the World, and the Other: Living Semiotics, Routledge, New York, 2013.

Douglas Walter Scott, “Music as Semiotic Eigenbehavior,” Constructivist Foundations, Vol. 12, 2017, pp. 342-352.

 

Applications of Barthes

Grace E. Adamo, (2013). “An Analysis of Students’ Slang Terms for Academic Activities in a Nigerian University: A Semiotic Approach,” Southern African Linguistics & Applied Language Studies, Vol. 31, 2013, pp. 89-96.

Kawakib Al-Momani, Muhammad A. Badarneh, and Fathi Migdadi, “A Semiotic Analysis of Political Cartoons in Jordan in Light of the Arab Spring,” Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, Vol. 30, 2017, pp. 63-95.

B. R. Barricelli, D. Gadia, A. Rizzi, and D. L. R. Marini, “Semiotics of Virtual Reality as a Communication Process,” Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 35, 2016, pp. 879-896.

Cinzia Bianchi, “Semiotic Approaches to Advertising Texts and Strategies: Narrative, Passion, Marketing,” Semiotica, Issue 183, 2011, pp. 243-271.

Pat Brereton and Robert Furze, “Transcendence and The Tree of Life: Beyond the Face of the Screen with Terrence Malick, Emmanuel Levinas, and Roland Barthes,” Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture,” Vol. 8, 2014, pp. 329-351.

Justin D. Burton “From Barthes to Bart: The Simpsons vs. Amadeus,” Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 481-500.

Nicolas Adam Cambridge, “High Teas, High Collars and High Rise Buildings in a ‘High-Context’ Culture: The Semiotics of Japan's Project of Modernity,” Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 11-22.

Wendy Quinlan-Gagnon, “How Buildings Speak: Architecture and Ambiance in the Construction of Art Museum Discourses,” International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 47-61.

Chapter 27—Cultural Studies

  • For a critical perspective on Hall as a theorist and as a critic of cultural, see Chris Rojek, Stuart Hall, Blackwell, Malden, MA, 2003.
  • For a hypothesized next stage of cultural studies, see Scott Lash, “Power After Hegemony: Cultural Studies in Mutation?,” Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 55-78.
  • A more cautious (yet nonetheless sinister) critique of the economic realities behind the media is Ben H. Bagdikian, The New Media Monopoly, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 2004. The book links the intellectual decline of the American newspaper industry to inevitable economic pressures.  Bagdikian does not fit neatly into Hall’s camp, but his effort to demonstrate the ways in which the business decisions of the economic elite limit the diversity of news coverage falls into the larger category of economic determinism.
  • Another relevant read is Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, Henry Holt, New York, 2001. Ehrenreich describes the experience of living on minimum wage in America.  While not strictly out of a cultural studies perspective, it provides a fascinating account of trying to work at the bottom of the hierarchy.  Her follow-up shows the grim side of the white-collar existence: Barbara Ehrenreich, Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream, Metropolitan Books, New York, 2005.
Additional sources about Hall

The Media Education Foundation distributes a video production of an accessible lecture by Stuart Hall entitled Stuart Hall: Representation and the Media  You can check it out at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTzMsPqssOY

Ien Ang, “Stuart Hall and the Tension Between Academic and Intellectual Work,” International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 19, 2016, pp. 29-41.

Gerard Goggin, “Media and Power After Stuart Hall,” Cultural Studies Review, 22, 2016, pp. 277-281.

Sut Jhally, “Stuart Hall: The last interview,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 332-345.

Sut Jhally, “Stuart Hall's Pessimism of the Intellect, Optimism of the Will: Reflections on an Intellectual Life,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 322-331.

Herbert Pimlott, “Stuart Hall’s Legacy: Thatcherism, Cultural Studies and ‘The Battle for Socialist Ideas’ During the 1980,” Socialist Studies, Vol. 12, 2017, pp. 117-133.

Hudson Vincent, “Space for Cultural Studies: Conversations with the Centre,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 666-686.

 

Cultural studies analyses

Jimmy Draper, “Theorizing Creative Agency Through ‘Discerned Savvy’: A Tool for the Critical Study of Media Industries,” Media, Culture, & Society, Vol. 36, 2014, pp. 1118-1133.

Jayson Harsin and Mark Hayward, “Stuart Hall's ‘Deconstructing the Popular’: Reconsiderations 30 Years Later,” Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 6, 2013, pp. 201-207.

Isabel Molina-Guzmán, “#OscarsSoWhite: How Stuart Hall Explains Why Nothing Changes in Hollywood and Everything is Changing,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 438-454.

Elspeth Probyn, “A Feminist Love Letter to Stuart Hall; or What Feminist Cultural Studies Needs to Remember,” Cultural Studies Review, Vol. 22, 2016, pp. 294-301.

Nelly Richard, “Humanities and Social Sciences in Critical Dialogues with Cultural Studies,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 26, 2012, pp. 166-177.

D. Travers Scott, “Reconciling Hall with Discourse, Written in the Shadows of ‘Confederate’ and Rainbow Flags,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 424-437.

Katherine Sender and Peter Decherney, “Stuart Hall Lives: Cultural Studies in an Age of Digital Media,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 381-384.

Handel Kashope Wright, “Stuart Hall’s Relevance for the Study of African Blackness,” International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 19, 2016, pp. 85-99.

 

Other teaching ideas

Catherine Driscoll, “Teaching Cultural Studies; Teaching Stuart Hall,” Cultural Studies Review, Vol. 22, 2016, pp. 269-276.

Chapter 28—Uses and Gratifications

Theoretical considersations

Sarah M. Coyne, Laura M. Padilla-Walker, and Emily Howard, “Emerging in a Digital World: A Decade Review of Media Use, Effects, and Gratifications in Emerging Adulthood,” Emerging Adulthood, Vol. 1, 2013, pp. 125-137.

Hui-Fei Lin and Chi-Hua Chen, “Combining the Technology Acceptance Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory to Examine the Usage Behavior of an Augmented Reality Tour-Sharing Application,” Symmetry, Vol. 9, 2017, pp. 1-22.

Jian Raymond Rui and Michael A. Stefanone, “The Desire for Fame: An Extension of Uses and Gratifications Theory,” Communication Studies, Vol. 67, 2016, pp. 399-418.

Jiyeon So, “Uses, Gratifications, and Beyond: Toward a Model of Motivated Media Exposure and Its Effects on Risk Perception,” Communication Theory, Vol. 22, 2012, pp. 116-137.

 

Applied contexts (general)

Kristin M. Barton, “Why We Watch Them Sing and Dance: The Uses and Gratifications of Talent-Based Reality Television,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 61, 2013, pp. 217-235.

Bela Florenthal, “Applying Uses and Gratifications Theory to Students’ LinkedIn Usage,” Young Consumers, Vol. 16, 2015, pp. 17-35.

Amanda Jo Ratcliff, Josh McCarty, and Matt Ritter, “Religion and New Media: A Uses and Gratifications Approach,” Journal of Media and Religion, Vol. 16, 2017, pp. 15-26.

 

Social media use

Amandeep Dhir, Gina M. Chen, and Sufen Chen, “Why Do We Tag Photographs on Facebook? Proposing a New Gratifications Scale,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 502-521.

Amber L. Ferris and Erin E. Hollenbaugh, “A Uses and Gratifications Approach to Exploring Antecedents to Facebook Dependency,” Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 62, 2018, pp. 51-70.

Rachel Grieve, “Unpacking the Characteristics of Snapchat Users: A Preliminary Investigation and an Agenda for Future Research,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 74, 2017, pp. 130-138.

Joe Phua, Seunga Venus Jin, and Jihoon (Jay) Kim, “Uses and Gratifications of Social Networking Sites for Bridging and Bonding Social Capital: A Comparison of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 72, 2017, pp. 115-122.

Pavica Sheldon and Katherine Bryant, “Instagram: Motives for Its Use and Relationship to Narcissism and Contextual Age,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 58, 2016, pp. 89-97.

Erin Willis and Patrick Ferrucci, “Mourning and Grief on Facebook: An Examination of Motivations for Interacting With the Deceased,” OMEGA: The Journal Of Death And Dying, Vol. 76, 2017, pp. 122-140.

 

Uses & grats in sports

Adam C. Earnheardt and Paul M. Haridakis, “Exploring Fandom and Motives for Viewing Television Sports,” in Sports Mania: Essays on Fandom and the Media in the 21st Century, Lawrence W. Hugenberg, Paul M. Haridakis, and Adam C. Earnheardt (eds.), McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2008, pp. 158-171. 

Evan L. Frederick, Choong Hoon, Lim, Galen Clavio, and Patrick Walsh, “Why We Follow: An Examination of Parasocial Interaction and Fan Motivations for Following Athlete Archetypes on Twitter,” International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 5, 2012, pp. 481-502.

Seok Kang, “Mobile Communication and Pro Sports: Motivation and Fan Loyalty,” International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 15, 2017, pp. 604-627.

Joon K. Kim and Kevin Hull, “How Fans are Engaging with Baseball Teams Demonstrating Multiple Objectives on Instagram,” Sport, Business And Management: An International Journal, Vol. 7, 2017, pp. 216-232.

Craig A. Morehead, Brendan O'Hallarn, and Stephen L. Shapiro, “Tell Me How You Really Feel: Analyzing Debate, Desire, and Disinhibition in Online Sports News Stories,” International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 13-35.

John S. W. Spinda, “From Good Ol' Boys to National Spectacle: Motives and Identification Among Young NASCAR Fans,” in Sports Fans, Identity, and Socialization: Exploring the Fandemonium, Adam C. Earnheardt, Paul M. Haridakis, and Barbara S. Hugenberg (eds.), Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 2012, pp. 177-189.

 

Online gaming

Christopher J. Ferguson, Benjamin Trigani, Steven Pilato, Stephanie Miller, Kimberly Foley, and Hayley Barr, “Violent Video Games Don’t Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out,” Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 87, 2016, pp. 49-56.

Taozhen Huang, Zheshi Bao, and Yan Li, “Why Do Players Purchase in Mobile Social Network Games? An Examination of Customer Engagement and of Uses and Gratifications Theory,” Program, Vol. 51, 2017, pp. 259-277.

 

Other online media

Chunmei Gan and Hongxiu Li, “Understanding the Effects of Gratifications on the Continuance Intention to Use WeChat in China: A Perspective on Uses and Gratifications,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 78, 2018, pp. 306-315.

Barbara K. Kaye, “Going to the Blogs: Toward the Development of a Uses and Gratifications Measurement Scale for Blogs,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 18, 2010, pp. 194-210.

Fang-Yi Flora Wei and Y. Ken Wang, “Students’ Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?,” Communication Education, Vol. 59, 2010, pp. 475-496.

 

Politics and civic life

Gary Hanson, Paul Michael Haridakis, Audrey Wagstaff Cunningham, Rekha Sharma, and J. D. Ponder, “The 2008 Presidential Campaign: Political Cynicism in the Age of Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 13, 2010, pp. 584-607.

 

Chapter 29—Cultivation Theory

Ellen Wartella takes up the issue of television violence in her 1996 Carroll Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “The Context of Television Violence,” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1997 (as of this writing, a copy is available at http://www1.udel.edu/comm245/readings/tvviolence.pdf) as does James T. Hamilton, Channeling Violence: The Economic Market for Violent Television Programming, Princeton University Press, 1998. 

Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research dedicated its September 2004 (Vol. 29, Issue 3, Jan Van den Bulck, ed.) special issue to then-current developments in cultivation research.

Theoretical considerations

Kimberly Gross and Sean Aday, “The Scary World in Your Living Room and Neighborhood: Using Local Broadcast News, Neighborhood Crime Rates, and Personal Experience to Test Agenda Setting and Cultivation,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 53, 2003, pp. 411-426.

Michael Morgan, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Yesterday's New Cultivation, Tomorrow,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 674-699.

Michael Morgan and James Shanahan, “The State of Cultivation,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 54, 2010, pp. 337-355.

Karyn Riddle, “Remembering Past Media Use: Toward the Development of a Lifetime Television Exposure Scale,” Communication Methods & Measures, Vol. 4, 2010, pp. 241-255.

Karyn Riddle, W. James Potter, Miriam J. Metzger, Robin L. Nabi, and Daniel G. Linz, “Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media,” Media Psychology, Vol. 14, 2011, pp. 168-191.

Anna Schnauber and Christine E. Meltzer, “On the Distinction and Interrelation Between First- and Second-Order Judgments in Cultivation Research,” Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2016, pp. 121-143.

 

Critiques and contrasting opinions of cultivation theory

Markus Appel, “Fictional Narratives Cultivate Just-World Beliefs,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 58, 2008, pp. 62-83.

Lennert Coenen and Jan Van den Bulck, “Cultivating the Opinionated: The Need to Evaluate Moderates the Relationship Between Crime Drama Viewing and Scary World Evaluations,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 421-440.

W. James Potter, “A Critical Analysis of Cultivation Theory,” Journal of Communication, 64, 2014, pp. 1015-1036.

 

Cultivation and news coverage

John W. Cheng, Hitoshi Mitomo, Tokio Otsuka, and Stefan Y. Jeon, “Cultivation Effects of Mass and Social Media on Perceptions and Behavioural Intentions in Post-Disaster Recovery – The Case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake,” Telematics & Informatics, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 753-772.

Zeeba Khan and Jon Bruschke, “Media Coverage of Muslims, Perceived Threats, Ethnocentrism, and Intercultural Contact: Applying Cultivation Theory, Integrated Threat Theory, and the Contact Hypothesis,” Northwest Journal of Communication, Vol. 44, 2016, pp. 7-34.

Sean Patrick Roche, Justin T. Pickett, and Marc Gertz, “The Scary World of Online News? Internet News Exposure and Public Attitudes Toward Crime and Justice,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Vol. 32, 2016, pp. 215-236.

 

Violence

John R. Chapin and Grace Coleman, “Optimistic Bias About Dating/Relationship Violence Among Teens,” Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 645-655.

Kathleen Custers and Jan Van den Bulck, “The Cultivation of Fear of Sexual Violence in Women: Processes and Moderators of the Relationship Between Television and Fear,” Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2013, pp. 96-124.

LeeAnn Kahlor and Matthew S. Eastin, “Television's Role in the Culture of Violence Toward Women: A Study of Television Viewing and the Cultivation of Rape Myth Acceptance in the United States,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 55, 2011, pp. 215-231.

 

Video Games

Yew Mun Gabriel Chong, Kie Zin Scott Teng, Sok Cheng Amy Siew, and Marko M. Skoric, “Cultivation Effects of Video Games: A Longer-Term Experimental Test of First- and Second-Order Effects,” Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol. 31, 2012, pp. 952-971.

Dmitri Williams, “Virtual Cultivation: Online Worlds, Offline Perceptions,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 56, 2006, pp. 69-87.

 

Sex and gender role cultivation

Dawn Elizabeth England, Lara Descartes, and Melissa A. Collier-Meek, “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses,” Sex Roles, Vol. 64, 2011, pp. 555-567.

Hilary Gamble and Leslie R. Nelson, “Sex in College Relationships: The Role Television Plays in Emerging Adults’ Sexual Expectations in Relationships,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 83, 2016, pp. 145-161.

Ashton Gerding and Nancy Signorielli, “Gender Roles in Tween Television Programming: A Content Analysis of Two Genres,” Sex Roles, Vol. 70, 2014, pp. 43-56.

Scott Parrott and Caroline Titcomb Parrott, “U.S. Television’s ‘Mean World’ for White Women: The Portrayal of Gender and Race on Fictional Crime Dramas,” Sex Roles, Vol. 73, 2015, pp. 70-82. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Is Reality TV a Bad Girls Club? Television Use, Docusoap Reality Television Viewing, and the Cultivation of the Approval of Aggression,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 95, 2018, pp. 235-257. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Cultivating Conceptions of Masculinity: Television and Perceptions of Masculine Gender Role Norms,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 21, 2018, pp. 149-177.

Kristen E. Van Vonderen and William Kinnally, “Media Effects on Body Image: Examining Media Exposure in the Broader Context of Internal and Other Social Factors,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 14, 2012, pp. 41-57.

  

Other applied contexts

Kathleen Beullens, Keith Roe, and Jan Van den Bulck, “Music Video Viewing as a Marker of Driving After the Consumption of Alcohol,” Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 47, 2012, pp. 155-165.

Bumsub Jin and Seongjung Jeong, “The Impact of Korean Television Drama Viewership on the Social Perceptions of Single Life and Having Fewer Children in Married Life,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 20, 2010, pp. 17-32.

Jae Eun Chung, “Medical Dramas and Viewer Perception of Health: Testing Cultivation Effects,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2014, pp. 333-349.

Jon Hammermeister, Barbara Brock, David Winterstein, and Randy Page, “Life Without TV? Cultivation Theory and Psychosocial Health Characteristics of Television-Free Individuals and Their Television-Viewing Counterparts,” Health Communication, Vol. 17, 2005, pp. 253-264.

Amir Hetsroni and Hila Lowenstein, “Cultivation and Counter Cultivation: Does Religiosity Shape the Relationship Between Television Viewing and Estimates of Crime Prevalence and Assessment of Victimization Likelihood?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 112, 2013, pp. 303-324.

Amir Hetsroni, Abira Reizer, and Uri Ben Zion, “Interest Rate Demands and Television Viewing--Is a Single Exposure More Influential Than Routine Viewing?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 120, 2017, pp. 332-360.

Mina Tsay-Vogel, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Social Media Cultivating Perceptions of Privacy: A 5-Year Analysis of Privacy Attitudes and Self-Disclosure Behaviors Among Facebook Users,” New Media & Society, Vol. 20, 2018, pp. 141-161.

 

Teaching ideas

Elizabeth Ribarsky, “The Frankenstein Project: Examining Media's Role in Constructing Romantic Relationship Ideals,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 160-164.

Chapter 30—Agenda-Setting Theory

One of the most famous political statements about the agenda-setting function of the media is Spiro Agnew’s “Television News Coverage” speech (transcript of the speech is available online at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/spiroagnewtvnewscoverage.htm).  Focusing on recent news coverage of Nixon’s handling of the war in Indochina, the Vice President argued that the liberal media elite unfairly influence both what Americans think about (agenda-setting) and how they think about it (framing).  Somewhat ironically, Agnew’s successful attack on the press’s power demonstrated a very different point—the ability of politicians and their spin doctors to use media outlets to shape public opinion. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Amélie Godefroidt, Anna Berbers, and Leen d’Haenens, “What’s in a Frame? A Comparative Content Analysis of American, British, French, and Russian News Articles,” International Communication Gazette, Vol. 78, 2016, pp. 777-801.

Leo W. Jeffres, “Mass Communication Theories in a Time of Changing Technologies,” Mass Communication and Society, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 523-530.

Amie Kreppel and Buket Oztas, “Leading the Band or Just Playing the Tune? Reassessing the Agenda-Setting Powers of the European Commission,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 50, 2017, pp. 1118-1150.

Lei Guo, Hong Tien Vu, and Maxwell McCombs, “An Expanded Perspective on Agenda-Setting Effects: Exploring the Third Level of Agenda Setting,” Revista de Comunicación, 2012, pp. 1151-68.

Maxwell E. McCombs, Donald L. Shaw, and David H. Weaver, “New Directions in Agenda-Setting Theory and Research,” Mass Communication and Society,Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 781-802.

W. Russell Neuman, Lauren Guggenheim, S. Mo Jang, and Soo Young Bae, “The Dynamics of Public Attention: Agenda-Setting Theory Meets Big Data,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 64, 2014, pp. 193-214.

Joaquín Trigueros and Ivan Lacasa-Mas, “Colloquy with Maxwell McCombs at the University of Texas at Austin: Agenda Setting, a Limitless Theory in a Connected World,” Church, Communication and Culture, Vol. 3, 2018, pp. 53-74.

Chris J. Vargo and Lei Guo, L. “Networks, Big Data, and Intermedia Agenda Setting: An Analysis of Traditional, Partisan, and Emerging Online U.S. News,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 94, 2017, pp. 1031-1055.

Hong Tien Vu, Lei Guo, and Maxwell E. McCombs, “Exploring ‘the World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads’: A Network Agenda-Setting Study,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 91, 2014, pp. 669-686.

 

The media’s gatekeeping function

Bruce A. Williams and Michael X. Delli Carpini, “Monica and Bill All the Time and Everywhere: The Collapse of Gatekeeping and Agenda-Setting in the New Media Environment,” American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 47, 2004, pp. 1208-1230.

Monika Djerf-Pierre and Adam Shehata, “Still an Agenda Setter: Traditional News Media and Public Opinion During the Transition From Low to High Choice Media Environments,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 67, 2017, pp. 733-757.

Alexander Fouirnaies, “When Are Agenda Setters Valuable?,” American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 62, 2018, pp. 176-191.

Mark Lee Hunter, Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Maria Besiou, and Mignon van Halderen, “The Agenda-Setting Power of Stakeholder Media,” California Management Review, Vol. 56, 2013, pp. 24-49.

Kathleen Searles and Glen Smith, “Who's the Boss? Setting the Agenda in a Fragmented Media Environment,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 2074-2095.

 

Agenda-setting in sports

James R. Angelini and Andrew C. Billings, A. C. “An Agenda That Sets the Frames: Gender, Language, and NBC's Americanized Olympic Telecast,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 29, 2010, pp. 363-385.

Ari Kim, Moonhoon Choi, and Kyriaki Kaplanidou, “The Role of Media in Enhancing People's Perception of Hosting a Mega Sport Event: The Case of Pyeongchang's Winter Olympics Bids,” International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 8, 2015, pp. 68-86.

Laureen M. Burch, Evan L. Frederick, Matthew H. Zimmerman, and Galen E. Clavio, “Agenda-Setting and La Copa Mundial: Marketing Through Agenda-Setting on Soccer Blogs During the 2010 World Cup,” International Journal of Sport Management & Marketing, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 213-231.

Andrea Eagleman, Lauren M. Burch, and Ryan Vooris, “A Unified Version of London 2012: New-Media Coverage of Gender, Nationality, and Sport for Olympics Consumers in Six Countries,” Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 457-470.

John A. Fortunato, “Agenda-Setting Through the Television Programming Schedule: An Examination of Major League Baseball on Fox,” JMM: The International Journal on Media Management, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 163-180.

Kevin Hull and Annelie Schmittel, “A Fumbled Opportunity? A Case Study of Twitter’s Role in Concussion Awareness Opportunities During the Super Bowl,” Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 39, 2015, pp. 78-94.

Matthew H. Zimmerman, Galen E. Clavio, and Choong Hoon Lim, “Set the Agenda Like Beckham: A Professional Sports League's Use of YouTube to Disseminate Messages to Its Users,” International Journal of Sport Management & Marketing, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 180-195.

 

Agenda-setting in politics

Lei Guo, Yi-Ning Katherine Chen, Hong Vu, Qian Wang, Radoslaw Aksamit, Damian Guzek, Marek Jachimowski, and Maxwell McCombs, “Coverage of the Iraq War in the United States, Mainland China, Taiwan and Poland: A Transnational Network Agenda-Setting Study,” Journalism Studies, Vol. 16, 2015, pp. 343-362.

Ashley Muddiman, Natalie Jomini Stroud, and Maxwell McCombs, “Media Fragmentation, Attribute Agenda Setting, and Political Opinions About Iraq,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 58, 2014, pp. 215-233.

Kathleen Raso and Robert J. Neubauer, R. J. “Managing Dissent: Energy Pipelines and ‘New Right’ Politics in Canada,” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 41, 2016, pp. 115-133.

Donald L. Shaw, Thomas C. Terry, and Milad Minooie, “Military Communication Strategies Based on How Audiences Meld Media and Agendas,” Military Review, Vol. 95, 2015, pp. 16-28.

Daphne van der Pas, “Making Hay While the Sun Shines: Do Parties Only Respond to Media Attention When the Framing Is Right?,” International Journal of Press/Politics, Vol. 19, 2014, pp. 42-65.

Chris J. Vargo, Lei Guo, Maxwell McCombs, and Donald L. Shaw, “Network Issue Agendas on Twitter During the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 64, 2014, pp. 296-316.

Michelle Wolfe, Bryan D. Jones, and Frank R. Baumgartner, “A Failure to Communicate: Agenda Setting in Media and Policy Studies,” Political Communication, Vol. 30, 2013, pp. 175-192.

 

Other applied contexts

Helen Dixon, Charles Warne, Maree Scully, Suzanne Dobbinson, and Melanie Wakefield, “Agenda-Setting Effects of Sun-Related News Coverage on Public Attitudes and Beliefs About Tanning and Skin Cancer,” Health Communication, Vol. 29, 2014, pp. 173-181.

Jiyoon (Karen) Han, Seungae Lee, and Maxwell McCombs, “The Attribute Agenda-Setting Influence of Online Community on Online Newscast: Investigating the South Korean Sewol Ferry Tragedy,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 27, 2017, pp. 601-615.

Pavlos C. Symeou, Philemon Bantimaroudis, and Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos, “Cultural Agenda Setting and the Role of Critics: An Empirical Examination in the Market for Art-House Films,” Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2015, pp. 732-754.

Larissa Terán and Tara M. Emmers-Sommer, “‘The Destruction of a Legacy’: Agenda Setting and the Bill Cosby Sexual Assault Allegations,” Sexuality & Culture, Vol. 22, 2018, pp. 63-89.

Chapter 31—Genderlect Styles

A good general collection of essays on related issues is Linda A. M. Perry, Lynn H. Turner, and Helen M. Sterk (eds.), Constructing and Reconstructing Gender: The Links Among Communication, Language, and Gender, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992.  Particularly relevant is Nancy Hoar’s piece, “Genderlect, Powerlect, and Politeness” (pp. 127-36). 

William Rawlins’ books have much of interest to say about the ways males and females communicate with their friends and romantic partners.

  • William K. Rawlins, Friendship Matters: Communication, Dialectics, and the Life Course, Routledge, New York, 1992.
  • William K. Rawlins, The Compass of Friendship: Narratives, Identities, and Dialogues, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2009. 

For a critical assessment of the male genderlect, see Peter F. Murphy, Studs, Tools, and the Family Jewels: Metaphors Men Live By, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 2001.

 

Other texts by Tannen

Deborah Tannen (ed.), Framing and Discourse, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Deborah Tannen (ed.), Gender and Conversational Interaction, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Her books on families include:

  • Deborah Tannen, You Were Always Mom’s Favorite!: Sisters in Conversation Throughout Their Lives, Random House, New York, 2009.
  • Deborah Tannen, You’re Wearing THAT?: Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation, Random House, New York, 2006.
  • Deborah Tannen, I Only Say This Because I Love You: How The Way We Talk Can Make or Break Family Relationships Throughout Our Lives, Random House, New York, 2001.

She addresses women’s friendships in You’re the Only One I Can Tell: Inside the Language of Women’s Friendships, Ballantine Books, New York, 2017.

Women and men’s workplace relationships are the subject of her book Talking From 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work, Avon Books, 1995.

You may wish to check out her work The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War of Words, Ballantine Books, New York, 1999.  Although probably misnamed—Tannen is not really against argument when it is conducted rationally, fairly, and productively—it takes on the discourse of contentiousness that may be too prevalent in our society. 

 

Critiques of Tannen

An attack on Tannen’s genderlect theory in You Just Don’t Understand appears in Daena J. Goldsmith and Patricia A. Fulfs, “‘You Just Don’t Have the Evidence’: An Analysis of Claims and Evidence in Deborah Tannen’s You Just Don’t Understand,Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 22, 1999, pp. 1-49. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Kathryn Heath, Jill Flynn, and Mary Davis Holt, “Women, Find Your Voice,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 92, 2014, pp. 118-121.

Anthony Mulac, James J. Bradac, and Pamela Gibbons, ”Empirical Support for the Gender-as-Culture Hypothesis: An Intercultural Analysis of Male/Female Language Differences,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 27, 2001, pp. 121-152.

Anthony Mulac, Howard Giles, James J. Bradac, and Nicholas A. Palomares, ”The Gender-Linked Language Effect: An Empirical Test of a General Process Model,” Language Sciences, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 22-31.

Deborah Tannen, “The Medium Is the Metamessage: Conversational Style in New Media Interaction,” In Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media, Deborah Tannen and Anna Marie Trester (eds.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC, 2013, pp. 99-118.

Christopher J. Zahn, “The Bases for Differing Evaluations of Male and Female Speech: Evidence from Ratings of Transcribed Conversation,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 56, 1989, pp. 59-74.

 

Language differences

Patricia Easteal, Lorana Bartels, and Sally Bradford, “Language, Gender and ‘Reality’: Violence Against Women,” International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, Vol. 40, 2012, pp. 324-337.

Albert N. Katz and Jonathan A. R. Woodbury, “Gender Differences in Being Thanked for Performing a Favor,” Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Vol. 46, 2017, pp. 481-496.

Malka Muchnik and Anat Stavans, “Telling the Same Story to Your Child: Mothers' versus Fathers' Storytelling Interactions,” Women & Language, Vol. 32, 2009, pp. 60-69.

Dhiraj Murthy, Sawyer Bowman, Alexander J. Gross, and Marisa McGarry, “Do We Tweet Differently From Our Mobile Devices? A Study of Language Differences on Mobile and Web-Based Twitter Platforms,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2015, pp. 816-837.

Felicia Roberts and Alda Norris, “Gendered Expectations for ‘Agreeableness’ in Response to Requests and Opinions,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 16-23.

 

Applied contexts

Nina Haferkamp, Sabrina C. Eimler, Anna-Margarita Papadakis, and Jana Vanessa Kruck, “Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus? Examining Gender Differences in Self-Presentation on Social Networking Sites,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 91-98.

Rose Helens-Hart, “Females’ (Non)Disclosure of Minority Sexual Identities in the Workplace From a Communication Privacy Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, Vol. 68, 2017, pp. 607-623.

Kent Kaiser, “Sports Reporters in the Twittersphere: Challenging and Breaking Down Traditional Conceptualizations of Genderlect,” Online Information Review, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 761-784.

Roxana D. Maiorescu, “Crisis Management at General Motors and Toyota: An Analysis of Gender-Specific Communication and Media Coverage,” Public Relations Review, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 556-563.

Carey Noland, “‘Macho Men Don't Communicate’: The Role of Communication in HIV Prevention,” Journal of Men's Studies, Vol. 16, 2008, pp. 18-31.

Philip Sullivan, “Communication Differences Between Male and Female Team Sport Athletes,” Communication Reports, Vol. 17, 2004, pp. 121-128.

Chapter 32—Standpoint Theory

Standpoint theoretical considerations

For a general assessment of standpoint theory and a discussion and application of its relevance to rhetorical studies, see Glen McClish and Jacqueline Bacon, “‘Telling the Story Her Own Way’: The Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol.32, 2002, pp. 27-55.

Dilmi Aluwihare-Samaranayake, “Ethics in Qualitative Research: A View of the Participants’ and Researchers’ World from a Critical Standpoint,” International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 11, 2012, pp. 64-81.

Aimee-Marie Dorsten, “‘Thinking Dirty’: Digging Up Three Founding ‘Matriarchs’ of Communication Studies,” Communication Theory, Vol. 22, 2012, pp. 25-47.

Catherine E. Harnois, “Race, Gender, and the Black Women's Standpoint,” Sociological Forum, Vol. 25, 2010, pp. 68-85.

 

Standpoints of African-American women

For critiques of white feminists’ viewpoints by African-American women scholars and discussion of the ways in which racial and gender identities intersect in their lives, see:

  • bell hooks, Ain’t I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism, South End Press, Boston, 1981.
  • bell hooks’ essays “Reflections on Race and Sex” and “Representations: Feminism and Black Masculinity” in her collection Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics, South End Press, Boston, 1990.
  • Audre Lorde’s piece “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House” (p. 110-113) in her collection Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches, Crossing Press, Freedom, CA, 1984.
  • Wendy Leo Moore, “Reflexivity, Power, and Systemic Racism,” Ethnic & Racial Studies, Vol. 35, 2012, pp. 614-619.

 

Interpersonal and family contexts

Shereen G. Bingham, Kerry L. Beldin, and Laura Dendinger, “Mediator and Survivor Perspectives on Screening for Intimate Partner Abuse,” Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2014, pp. 305-330.

Alexis C. Dennis and Julia T. Wood, “‘We're Not Going to Have This Conversation, But You Get It’: Black Mother–Daughter Communication About Sexual Relations,” Women's Studies in Communication, Vol. 35, 2012, pp. 204-223.

Sarah J. Mahler, Mayurakshi Chaudhuri, and Vrushali Patil, “Scaling Intersectionality: Advancing Feminist Analysis of Transnational Families,” Sex Roles, Vol. 73, 2015, pp. 100-112.

Andrea L. Tyler and Lameesa Muhammad, “Race, Gender, and Single Parenting: Dismantling the 'Invisible' Myth Around Intellectual Black Female Scholars,” in Autoethnography as a Lighthouse: Illuminating Race, Research, and the Politics of Schooling, in Stephen D. Hancock, Ayana Allen, and Chance W. Lewis, (eds.), Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, 2015, pp. 83-101.

 

News and Journalism

José Andrés Araiza, “Saying Goodbye to Men: Southern Feminists Publishing News While Challenging Patriarchy,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 38, 2014, pp. 273-290.

Marian Meyers and Lynne Gayle, “African American Women in the Newsroom: Encoding Resistance,” Howard Journal of Communications, Vol. 26, 2015, pp. 292-312.

 

Standpoint in the digital age

Sarah J. Jackson and Sonia Banaszczyk, “Digital Standpoints: Debating Gendered Violence and Racial Exclusions in the Feminist Counterpublic,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 391-407.

Kimberly A. Scott and Mary Aleta White, “COMPUGIRLS' Standpoint: Culturally Responsive Computing and Its Effect on Girls of Color,” Urban Education, Vol. 48, 2013, pp. 657-681.

Robin Stevens, Stacia Gilliard-Matthews, Jamie Dunaev, Marcus K. Woods, and Bridgette M. Brawner, “The Digital Hood: Social Media Use Among Youth in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 950-967.

 

In sports arenas

Helen Jefferson Lenskyj, “Reflections on Communication and Sport: On Heteronormativity and Gender Identities,” Communication and Sport, Vol. 1, 2013, pp. 138-150.

Brian K. Richardson and Joseph McGlynn, “Rabid Fans, Death Threats, and Dysfunctional Stakeholders: The Influence of Organizational and Industry Contexts on Whistle-Blowing Cases,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 25, 2011, pp. 121-150.

Nefertiti A. Walker and E. Nicole Melton, “The Tipping Point: The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Intercollegiate Sports,” Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 29, 2015, pp. 257-271.

 

Teaching idea

Donna R. Pawlowski, (2006). “Who Am I and Where Do I ‘Stand?’,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 20, 2006, pp. 69-73.

 

Other applied Contexts

Deborah Ballard-Reisch, “Muted Groups in Health Communication Policy and Practice: The Case of Older Adults in Rural and Frontier Areas,” Women & Language, Vol. 33, 2010, pp. 87-93.

Patrice M. Buzzanell, Robyn V. Remke, Rebecca Meisenbach, Meina Liu, Venssa Bowers, and Cindy Conn, “Standpoints of Maternity Leave: Discourses of Temporality and Ability,” Women's Studies in Communication, Vol. 40, 2017, pp. 67-90.

Kate Lockwood Harris, “Re-Situating Organizational Knowledge: Violence, Intersectionality and the Privilege of Partial Perspective,” Human Relations, Vol. 70, 2017, pp. 263-285.

Aileen Moreton-Robinson, “Towards an Australian Indigenous Women's Standpoint Theory,” Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 28, 2013, pp. 331-347.

Sarah Mosedale, “Women's Empowerment as a Development Goal: Taking a Feminist Standpoint,” Journal of International Development, Vol. 26, 2014, pp. 1115-1125.

Alison Wylie, “Feminist Philosophy of Science: Standpoint Matters,” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 86, 2012, pp. 47-76.

Chapter 33—Muted Group Theory

One of the great fictional example of women as a muted group is Margaret Atwood’s dystopian novel The Handmaid’s Tale, Fawcett Crest, New York, 1986, which is also available as a 1990 film and, in 2017, was released as a streaming TV series on Hulu. 

For discussion of gender-specific language, see Julia T. Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture,11th ed., Wadsworth, Boston, 2014.

 

Theoretical considerations

Cheris Kramarae, “Muted Group Theory and Communication: Asking Dangerous Questions,” Women & Language, Vol. 28, 2005, pp. 55-61.

Julia T. Wood, “Feminist Standpoint Theory and Muted Group Theory: Commonalities and Divergences,” Women & Language, Vol. 28, 2005, pp. 61-64.

 

Sexual harassment & violence

Ann Burnett,Jody L. Mattern, Liliana L. Herakova, David H. Kahl Jr., Cloy Tobola, and Susan E. Bornsen, “Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 37, 2009, pp. 465-485.

Patricia Easteal, Kate Holland, Keziah Judd, “Enduring Themes and Silences in Media Portrayals of Violence Against Women,” Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 48, 2015, pp. 103-113.

 

Online & digital contexts

Jesse Fox and Wai Yen Tang, “Women’s Experiences with General and Sexual Harassment in Online Video Games: Rumination, Organizational Responsiveness, Withdrawal, and Coping Strategies,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 1290-1307.

Melonie Fullick, “‘Gendering’ the Self in Online Dating Discourse,” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 545-562.

Judith Hoover, Sally Hastings, and George Musambira, “‘Opening a Gap’ in Culture: Women's Uses of the Compassionate Friends Website,” Women & Language, Vol. 32, 2009, pp. 82-90.

Kent Kaiser, “Sports Reporters in the Twittersphere: Challenging and Breaking Down Traditional Conceptualizations of Genderlect,” Online Information Review, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 761-784.

Jenny Ungbha Korn, J. U. (2016). “‘Genderless’ Online Discourse in the 1970s: Muted Group Theory in Early Social Computing,” in Ada's Legacy: Cultures of Computing from the Victorian to the Digital Age, Robin Hammerman and Andrew L. Russell (eds.), 2016, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, Williston, VT, pp. 213-229.

 

Politics

Jennifer J. Jones, “Talk ‘Like a Man’: The Linguistic Styles of Hillary Clinton, 1992–2013,” Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 14, 2016, pp. 625-642.

Tetyana Lokot, “#IAmNotAfraidToSayIt: Stories of Sexual Violence as Everyday Political Speech on Facebook,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 21, 2018, pp. 802-817.

 

Language, humor and sexist jokes

Robyn K. Mallett, Thomas E. Ford, and Julie A. Woodzicka, “What Did He Mean By That? Humor Decreases Attributions of Sexism and Confrontation of Sexist Jokes,” Sex Roles, Vol. 75, 2016, 272-284.

Keri Matwick and Kelsi Matwick, “Self-Deprecatory Humor on TV Cooking Shows,” Language & Communication, Vol. 56, 2017, pp. 33-41.

Nalyn Sriwattanakomen, “Who's Laughing Now? The Effects of Sexist and Rape Humor,” Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, Vol. 22, 2017, pp. 85-97.

 

Other applied contexts

Katherine Grace Hendrix and Cicely Wilson, “Virtual Invisibility: Race and Communication Education,” Communication Education, Vol. 63, 2014, pp. 405-428.

Jamie L. Huber, “Singing It Out: Riot Grrrls, Lilith Fair, and Feminism,” Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research, Vol. 9, 2010, pp. 965-985.

Christopher John Hunt and Karen Gonsalkorale, “Who Cares What She Thinks, What Does He Say? Links Between Masculinity, In-Group Bonding and Gender Harassment,” Sex Roles, Vol. 70, 2014, pp. 14-27.

Kissack, H. (2010). “Muted Voices: A Critical Look at E-Male in Organizations,” Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 34, 2010, pp. 539-551.

Louise North, “Damaging and Daunting: Female Journalists’ Experiences of Sexual Harassment in the Newsroom,” Feminist Media Studies, Vol. 16, 2016, pp. 495-510.

Jacob Roecker, Nathan Fuchs, Joanne Cook, Marie Crookston, and Dana Henderson, “Both Sides Now: A Bona Fide Group Perspective of Families and Divorce Mediation,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 10, 2008, available online at http://ac-journal.org/journal/2008/Summer/3BothSidesNow.pdf

Jimmy Sanderson, Melinda Weathers, Katherine Snedaker, and Kelly Gramlich, “‘I Was Able to Still Do My Job on the Field and Keep Playing’: An Investigation of Female and Male Athletes’ Experiences With (Not) Reporting Concussions,” Communication and Sport, Vol. 5, 2017, pp. 267-287.

Chapter 34—Communication Accommodation Theory

Theoretical considerations

Margaret J. Pitts and Jake Harwood, “Communication Accommodation Competence: The Nature and Nurture of Accommodative Resources Across the Lifespan,” Language & Communication, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 89-99.

Ronald E. Rice and Howard Giles, “The Contexts and Dynamics of Science Communication and Language,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 36, 2017, pp. 127-139.

Catalina L. Toma, “Towards Conceptual Convergence: An Examination of Interpersonal Adaptation,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 62, 2014, pp. 155-178.

 

Healthcare

Rukhsana Ahmed and Benjamin R. Bates, “To Accommodate, or Not to Accommodate: Exploring Patient Satisfaction with Doctors’ Accommodative Behavior During the Clinical Encounter,” Journal of Communications in Healthcare, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 22-32.

Lindsey B. Anderson and Melanie Morgan, “An Examination of Nurses’ Intergenerational Communicative Experiences in the Workplace: Do Nurses Eat Their Young?,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 65, 2017, pp. 377-401.

Susan C. Baker and Bernadette M. Watson, “How Patients Perceive Their Doctors’ Communication: Implications for Patient Willingness to Communicate,” Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 34, 2015, pp. 621-639.

Christopher Hajek, Melinda Villagran, and Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles, “The Relationships Among Perceived Physician Accommodation, Perceived Outgroup Typicality, and Patient Inclinations Toward Compliance,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 293-302.

Jason T. Mickel, Shian-Li McGuire, and Shelley Gross-Gray, “Grey's Anatomy and Communication Accommodation: Exploring Aspects of Nonverbal Interactions Portrayed in Media,” Interpersona, Vol. 7, 2013, pp. 138-149.

Marilize Pretorius, “Communication Accommodation Theory Analysis of Nurse–Patient Interaction: Implications for Course Design,” International Journal of Applied Linguistics28, 2018, pp. 71-85.

 

Interpersonal and family contexts

Colleen Warner Colaner, Jordan Soliz, and Leslie R. Nelson, “Communicatively Managing Religious Identity Difference in Parent-Child Relationships: The Role of Accommodative and Nonaccommodative Communication,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 14, 2014, pp. 310-327.

Sally D. Farley, Susan M. Hughes, and Jack N. LaFayette, “People Will Know We Are in Love: Evidence of Differences Between Vocal Samples Directed Toward Lovers and Friends,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol. 37, 2013, pp. 123-138.

Andy J. Merolla and Jennifer J. Harman, “Relationship-Specific Hope and Constructive Conflict Management in Adult Romantic Relationships: Testing an Accommodation Framework,” Communication Research, Vol. 45, 2018, pp. 339-364.

Allison M. Scott and John P. Caughlin, “Communication Nonaccommodation in Family Conversations About End-of-Life Health Decisions,” Health Communication, 30, 2015, pp. 144-153.

Rebecca B. Speer, Howard Giles, and Amanda Denes, “Investigating Stepparent-Stepchild Interactions: The Role of Communication Accommodation,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 13, 2013, pp. 218-241.

 

Online or digital contexts

Chris Fullwood, Lisa J. Orchard, and Sarah A. Floyd, “Emoticon Convergence in Internet Chat Rooms,” Social Semiotics, Vol. 23, 2013, pp. 648-662.

Kate Muir, Adam Joinson, Rachel Cotterill, and Nigel Dewdney, “Linguistic Style Accommodation Shapes Impression Formation and Rapport in Computer-Mediated Communication,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 36, 2017, pp. 525-548.

Joshua M. Parcha, “Accommodating Twitter: Communication Accommodation Theory and Classroom Interactions,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 229-235.

Monica A. Riordan, Kris M. Markman, and Craig O. Stewart, “Communication Accommodation in Instant Messaging: An Examination of Temporal Convergence,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 32, 2013, pp. 84-95.

Nadine Tamburrini, Marco Cinnirella, Vincent A. A. Jansen, and John Bryden, “Twitter Users Change Word Usage According to Conversation-Partner Social Identity,” Social Networks, Vol. 40, 2015, pp. 84-89.

 

Under- or nonaccommodation

Jessica Gasiorek, “‘I Was Impolite to Her Because That's How She Was to Me’: Perceptions of Motive and Young Adults' Communicative Responses to Underaccommodation,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 77, 2013, pp. 604-624.

Jessica Gasiorek and Marko Dragojevic, “The Effects of Accumulated Underaccommodation on Perceptions of Underaccommodative Communication and Speakers,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 43, 2017, pp. 276-294.

Jessica Gasiorek and Howard Giles, “The Role of Inferred Motive in Processing Nonaccommodation: Evaluations of Communication and Speakers,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 456-471.

Jessica Gasiorek, Kris Van de Poel, and Inge Blockmans, “What Do You Do When You Can't Accommodate? Managing and Evaluating Problematic Interactions in a Multilingual Medical Environment,” Language & Communication, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 84-88.

Howard Giles and Jessica Gasiorek, J. (2014). “Parameters of Nonaccommodation: Refining and Elaborating Communication Accommodation Theory,” in Social Cognition and Communication, Joseph P. Forgas, Orsolya Vincze, and János László, (eds.), Psychology Press, New York, 2014, pp. 155-172.

 

Other applications and contexts for CAT

Amanda Denes, Jessica Gasiorek, and Howard Giles, “‘Don’t Touch That Dial’: Accommodating Musical Preferences in Interpersonal Relationships,” Psychology of Music, Vol. 44, 2016, pp. 1193-1201.

Xing Fang, “When an Indian Speaks to a Chinese: Making Sense of World Englishes in the Framework of Communication Accommodation Theory,” Asian Englishes, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 100-115.

Robert M. McCann and Howard Giles, “Communication With People of Different Ages in the Workplace: Thai and American Data,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 32, 2006, pp. 74-108.

Kate Muir, Adam Joinson, Rachel Cotterill, and Nigel Dewdney, “Characterizing the Linguistic Chameleon: Personal and Social Correlates of Linguistic Style Accommodation,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 462-484.

Jenny Nilsson, “Dialect Accommodation in Interaction: Explaining Dialect Change and Stability,” Language & Communication, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 6-16.

Rob Thomson, “The Effect of Topic of Discussion on Gendered Language in Computer-Mediated Communication Discussion,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 25, 2006, pp. 167-178.

Chapter 35—Face-Negotiation Theory

Theoretical considerations

Courtney Vail Fletcher, Masato Nakazawa, Yea-Win Chen, John G. Oetzel, Stella Ting-Toomey, Shau-Ju Chang, and Qin Zhang, “Establishing Cross-Cultural Measurement Equivalence of Scales Associated with Face-Negotiation Theory: A Critical Issue in Cross-Cultural Comparisons,” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 7, 2014, pp. 148-169.

Mai Nguyen-Phuong-Mai, Cees Terlouw, and Albert Pilot, “Revisiting Facework with a New Analysis Instrument,” Journal of Intercultural Communication, Vol. 36, 2014.

Andy J. Merolla, “Further Testing Hope’s Role in Constructive Conflict Communication,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 65, 2017, pp. 481-501.

Stella Ting-Toomey, “Managing Identity Issues in Intercultural Conflict Communication: Developing a Multicultural Identity Attunement Lens,” in The Oxford Handbook of Multicultural Identity, Verónica Benet-Martínez and Ying-yi Hong (eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, 2014, pp. 485-506.

 

Interpersonal and family applications

Min Kyong Cho and Alan Sillars, “Face Threat and Facework Strategies When Family (Health) Secrets Are Revealed: A Comparison of South Korea and the United States,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2015, pp. 535-557.

Andy J. Merolla and Jennifer A. Kam, “Parental Hope Communication and Parent-Adolescent Constructive Conflict Management: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 18, 2018, pp. 32-50.

James W. Neuliep and Morgan Johnson, “A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ecuadorian and United States Face, Facework, and Conflict Styles During Interpersonal conflict: An Application of Face-Negotiation Theory,” Journal of International & Intercultural Communication, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 1-19.

Laura A. Oramas, Dionne P. Stephens, and Melody Whiddon, “Influence of Parental Conflict Resolution Strategies on Hispanic College Women’s Experiences With Verbal Aggression,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 32, 2017, pp. 2908-2928.

Tiffany R. Tili and Gina G. Barker, “Communication in Intercultural Marriages: Managing Cultural Differences and Conflicts,” Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 80, 2015, pp. 189-210.

Qin Zhang, Stella Ting-Toomey, and John G. Oetzel, “Linking Emotion to the Conflict Face-Negotiation Theory: A U.S.-China Investigation of the Mediating Effects of Anger, Compassion, and Guilt in Interpersonal Conflict,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2014, pp. 373-395.

 

Workplace and organizational applications

Wonsun (Sunny) Kim, Anne M. Nicotera, and Julie McNulty, “Nurses' Perceptions of Conflict as Constructive or Destructive,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 71, 2015, pp. 2073-2083.

Yuping Mao and Claudia Hale, “Relating Intercultural Communication Sensitivity to Conflict Management Styles, Technology Use, and Organizational Communication Satisfaction in Multinational Organizations in China,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 44, 2015, pp. 132-150.

Erin M. Richard and Michael McFadden, “Saving Face: Reactions to Cultural Norm Violations in Business Request Emails,” Journal of Business & Psychology, Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 307-321.

 

Other applied Contexts

Hedy Greijdanus, Tom Postmes, Ernestine Gordijn, and Martijn van Zomeren, “Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication While Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions,” PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, 2015, pp. 1-23.

Tao Lin, “The Concepts of ‘Politeness’: A Comparative Study in Chinese and Japanese Verbal Communication,” Intercultural Communication Studies, Vol. 22, 2013, pp. 151-165.

James W. Neuliep and Morgan Johnson, “Do U.S. and Ecuadorian Students Differ in Their Conflict Styles?,” Communication Currents, Vol. 11, 2016, pp. 1-2, available online at https://www.natcom.org/communication-currents/do-us-and-ecuadorian-students-differ-their-conflict-styles

Adrian Toomey, Tenzin Dorjee, and Stella Ting-Toomey, “Bicultural Identity Negotiation, Conflicts, and Intergroup Communication Strategies,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2013, pp. 112-134.

Svenja Wachsmuth, Sophia Jowett, Chris G. Harwood, “Conflict Among Athletes and Their Coaches: What is the Theory and Research So Far?,” International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Vol. 10, 2017, pp. 84-107.

 

Teaching ideas

Christina G. Yoshimura, C. G. “Teaching Communication and Conflict as a Game,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 31, 2017, pp. 231-238.

Chapter 36—Co-Cultural Theory

Theoretical considerations

Gina Castle Bell, Mark C. Hopson, Melinda R. Weathers, and Katy A. Ross, “From ‘Laying the Foundations’ to Building the House: Extending Orbe's (1998) Co-Cultural Theory to Include ‘Rationalization’ as a Formal Strategy,” Communication Studies, Vol. 66, 2014, pp. 1-26.

Sara DeTurk, “Allies in Action: The Communicative Experiences of People Who Challenge Social Injustice on Behalf of Others,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 59, 2011, pp. 569-590.

Jesse Fox and Katie M. Warber, “Queer Identity Management and Political Self-Expression on Social Networking Sites: A Co-Cultural Approach to the Spiral of Silence,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2015, pp. 79-100.

Mark P. Orbe and Colin J. Batten, “Diverse Dominant Group Responses to Contemporary Co-Cultural Concerns: U.S. Intergroup Dynamics in the Trump Era,” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, Vol. 7, 2017, pp. 19-33.

Rona Tamiko Halualani, S. Lily Mendoza, and Jolanta A. Drzewiecka, “‘Critical’ Junctures in Intercultural Communication Studies: A Review,” Review of Communication, Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 17-35.

 

Applied contexts

Michael K. Ault and Bobbi Van Gilder, “Polygamy in the United States: How Marginalized Religious Communities Cope with Stigmatizing Discourses Surrounding Plural Marriage,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 44, 2015, pp. 307-328.

Bijie Bie and Lu Tang, “Chinese Gay Men’s Coming Out Narratives: Connecting Social Relationship to Co-Cultural Theory,” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 351-367.

Mark Congdon Jr., “What's Wrong with Me?: An Autoethnographic Investigation of the Co-Cultural Communicative Practices of Living with Tourette Syndrome during Adolescence,” Qualitative Report, Vol. 19, 2014, pp. 1-25.

Eun-Jeong Han and Paula Groves Price, “Communicating Across Difference: Co-Cultural Theory, Capital and Multicultural Families in Korea,” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Vol. 11, 2017, pp. 21-41.

Phyllis Ngai, “The Impact of Teachers' Communication Approach on Children's Co-Cultural Adaptation,” Journal of Intercultural Communication, Vol. 37, 2015.

C. Kyle Rudick, Michael Sollitto, Christopher J. Claus, Amy Aldridge Sanford, Keith Nainby, and Kathryn B. Golsan, “Comparing Hispanic-To-White Co-Cultural Communication at Four-Year, Public Hispanic Serving and Predominately White Institutions,” Communication Reports, Vol. 30, 2017, pp. 104-115.

Karla D. Scott, “Communication Strategies Across Cultural Borders: Dispelling Stereotypes, Performing Competence, and Redefining Black Womanhood,” Women's Studies in Communication, Vol. 36, 2013, pp. 312-329.

Melinda R. Weathers and Mark C. Hopson, “‘I Define What Hurts Me’: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Digital Dating Abuse,” Howard Journal of Communications, Vol. 26, 2015, pp. 95-113.

 

Other teaching ideas

Elizabeth Root, “Staging Scenes of Co-Cultural Communication: Acting Out Aspects of Marginalized and Dominant Identities,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 32, 2018, pp. 13-18.

 

Chapter 37—Common Threads in Comm Theories

Integrative essays on communication theory include:

John Stewart, “Developing Communication Theories,” in Developing Communication Theories, Gerry Philipsen and Terrance L. Albrecht (eds.), State University of New York Press, Albany, 1997, pp. 157-92.

Branislav Kova?i? and Donald P. Cushman, “A Pluralistic View of the Emerging Theories of Human Communication,” in Emerging Theories of Human Communication, Branislav Kova?i?, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1997, pp. 170-87. 

 

Other texts which show a range of connections across the disciple:

Nancy Baym, Scott W. Campbell, Heather Horst, Sri Kalyanaraman, Mary Beth Oliver, Eric Rothenbuhler, René Weber, and Katherine Miller, “Communication Theory and Research in the Age of New Media: A Conversation from the CM Café,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 79, 2012, pp. 256-267.

Marianne Dainton, Elaine D. Zelley, Applying Communication Theory for Professional Life: A Practical Introduction, 4th ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2019.

Thomas Hanitzsch, “Celebrating 25 Years of Communication Theory: Growing Diversity Under Heavy Strain,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 349-355.

Yoshitaka Miike, “De-Westernizing Communication Theory and Research: An Asiacentric Bibliography,” China Media Research, Vol. 7, 2011, pp. 111-121.

Adrian Pablé, “Communication Theory and Integrational Semiology: The Constitutive Metamodel Revisited,” Empedocles: European Journal for The Philosophy of Communication, Vol. 8, 2017, pp. 55-67.

Brent D. Ruben, “Communication Theory and Health Communication Practice: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same,” Health Communication, Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 1-11.

Gregory J. Shepherd, Jeffrey St. John, and Ted Striphas (eds.), Communication as… Perspectives on Theory, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006.

Bryan B. Whaley and Wendy Samter (eds.), Explaining Communication: Contemporary Theories and Exemplars, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2007.

Barbie Zelizer, “Making Communication Theory Matter,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 410-415.



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Chapter  1—Launching Your Study of Communication Theory

For good collections of general essays on communication theory, see

Fred L. Casmir (ed.), Building Communication Theories: A Socio/Cultural Approach, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1994. 

Gregory J. Shepherd, Jeffrey St. John, and Ted Striphas (eds), Communication As…: Perspectives on Theory, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006.

Additional resources

Carma L. Bylund, Emily B. Peterson, and Kenzie A. Cameron, “A Practitioner's Guide to Interpersonal Communication Theory: An Overview and Exploration of Selected Theories,” Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 87, 2012, pp. 261-267.

Robert T. Craig, “Pragmatist Realism in Communication Theory,” Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy of Communication, Vol. 7, 2016, pp. 115-128.

Thomas Hanitzsch, “Celebrating 25 Years of Communication Theory: Growing Diversity Under Heavy Strain,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 349-355.

Yoshitaka Miike, “De-Westernizing Communication Theory and Research: An Asiacentric Bibliography,” China Media Research, Vol. 7, 2011, pp. 111-121.

Barbie Zelizer, “Making Communication Theory Matter,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 410-415.

 

Chapter  2—Talk About Theory

  • In “The Third Way: Scientific Realism and Communication Theory,” Communication Theory 9 (May 1999): 162-88, Charles Pavitt further clarifies—and complicates—the “scientific” approach to communication theory. 
  • If you’d like to read more about Em Griffin’s view of communication research, we recommend “Journal of Communication and Religion: A State-of-the-Art Review,” Journal of Communication and Religion 21 (1998): 108-40. 
  • For essays on theory and research in interpersonal communication, see Barbara Montgomery and Steve Duck, eds., Studying Interpersonal Interaction (New York: Guilford, 1991). 
  • For discussion of the ways in which science is inherently interpretive or rhetorical, see:
    • Alan Gross, Joseph Harmon, and Michael Reidy, Communicating Science: The Scientific Article from the Seventeenth Century to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002);
    • Charles Bazerman, Shaping Written Knowledge: Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988);
    • Alan G. Gross, The Rhetoric of Science (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990);

Differences between the interpretive and the objective perspectives on communication

  • For additional discussion, see Glen McClish’ article, “Humanist and Empiricist Rhetorics: Some Reflections on Rhetorical Sensitivity, Message Design Logics, and Multiple Goal Structures,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 23 (Summer/Fall 1994): 27-45.  Because he tries to offer a way in which interpretive scholars (which he call humanists) can learn from their objective (which he call empiricist) colleagues, you may wish to revisit this article as you prepare to teach the final chapter in the book, which further explores the relationship between the two camps. 

Multiple interpretations of text

  • For further discussion, see Leah Ceccarelli, “Polysemy: Multiple Meanings in Rhetorical Criticism,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (November 1998): 395-15. 

Free will and determinism

  • One of the finest discussions we know of the debate over free will and determinism is William James's “The Dilemma of Determinism,” The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy, 145-83.  James's analogy of the chess game between the novice and the expert demonstrates a kind of resolution or middle ground between the free will argument and the determinist argument (181-82).  The fact that James works religion into the discussion makes his position even more interesting. 

Science and subjectivity

  • Two intriguing discussions of science and subjectivity are James Watson's classic expose, The Double Helix (New York: NAL, 1969), and David Raup's The Nemesis Star: A Story of the Death of Dinosaurs and the Ways of Science (New York: Norton, 1986). 

Evidence

  • For discussion of the issue of what constitutes appropriate evidence in communication research, see:
    • The symposium “The Dialogue of Evidence: A Topic Revisited,” Western Journal of Communication 58 (1994): 1-71;
    • Stuart J. Sigman, “Question: Evidence of What?  Answer: Communication,” Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 79-84;
    • Leslie Baxter and Lee West, “On ‘Whistler's Mother’ and Discourse of the Fourth Kind,” Western Journal of Communication 60 (1996): 92-100. 

Chapter  3—Weighing the Words

Empirical methods

Martin W. Bauer and Bankole A. Falade, “Public Understanding of Science: Survey Research Around the World,” in Routledge Handbook of Public Communication of Science and Technology, Brian Trench and Massimiano Bucchi (eds.), Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2014, pp. 140-159.

Jin Hong Ha and Lois Boynton, “Has Crisis Communication Been Studied Using an Interdisciplinary Approach? A 20-Year Content Analysis of Communication Journals,” International Journal of Strategic Communication, Vol. 8, 2014, pp. 29-44.

Yifeng Hu, “Health Communication Research in the Digital Age: A Systematic Review,” Journal of Communication In Healthcare, Vol. 8, 2015, pp. 260-288.

Jörg Matthes, Franziska Marquart, Brigitte Naderer, Florian Arendt, Desirée Schmuck, and Karoline Adam, “Questionable Research Practices in Experimental Communication Research: A Systematic Analysis From 1980 to 2013,” Communication Methods & Measures, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 193-207.

Paul Schrodt, “Quantitative Approaches to Dyadic Data Analyses in Family Communication Research: An Invited Essay,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 175-184. (See also the companion piece below by Manning & Kunkel.)

Ethnography and other interpretive methods

A good basic ethnography text is Wendy Bishop, Ethnographic Writing Research: Writing It Down, Writing It Up, and Reading It, Boynton/Cook, Portsmouth, NH, 1999.

 

For other examples, see:

Ronald C. Arnett, “Philosophy of Communication: Qualitative Research, Questions in Action,” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, Vol. 17, 2016, pp. 1-6.

Elissa Foster, Communicating at the End of Life: Finding Magic in the Mundane, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2007.

Andreas Hepp, Cindy Roitsch, and Matthias Berg, “Investigating communication networks contextually: Qualitative Network Analysis as Cross-Media Research,” Mediekultur: Journal of Media & Communication Research, Vol. 32, 2016, pp. 87-106.

Zoi Kalou and Eugene Sadler-Smith, “Using Ethnography of Communication in Organizational Research,” Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 629-655.

David Karpf, Daniel Kreiss, Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, and Matthew Powers, “The Role of Qualitative Methods in Political Communication Research: Past, Present, and Future,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 1888-1906.

James L. Leighter, Lisa Rudnick, and Theresa J. Edmonds, “How the Ethnography of Communication Provides Resources for Design,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 209-215.

Ross Louis, “Food as Social Justice: Critical Ethnography as a Lens for Communication Activism,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 87-93.

Jimmie Manning and Adrianne Kunkel, “Qualitative Approaches to Dyadic Data Analyses in Family Communication Research: An Invited Essay,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 185-192.

Chapter  4—Mapping the Territory

Bruce E. Gronbeck’s 1998 Carroll C. Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “Paradigms of Speech Communication Studies: Looking Back to the Future” (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, 1999) provides an alternative view of the discipline’s “territory.” 

 

For further discussions of traditions in communication theory, see:

Robert T. Craig, « The Constitutive Metamodel: A 16-Year Review,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 356-374.

Marc Howard Rich, “Spiritual Debate in Communication Theory: Craig's Metamodel Applied,” Journal Of Communication & Religion, Vol. 38, 2015, pp. 134-153.

Peter Simonson, Leonarda García-Jiménez, Johan Siebers, and Robert T. Craig, “Some Foundational Conceptions of Communication: Revising and Expanding the Traditions of Thought,” Empedocles: European Journal for the Philosophy Of Communication, Vol. 4, 2013, pp. 73-92. 

Chapter  5—Symbolic Interactionism

  • Good general texts are Joel M. Charon, Symbolic Interactionism: An Introduction, An Interpretation, An Integration, 7th ed, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2000; and John P. Hewitt, Self and Society: A Symbolic Interactionist Social Psychology, Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1991. 
  • Because Mead is a root, rather than a branch, of communication theory, symbolic interactionism's influence is pervasive in our field.  Recent studies that owe a heavy intellectual debt to Mead and Blumer include:
    • Lonnie Athens, “The Belated Appearance of ‘Radical Interactionism’ on the American Sociological Stage: The Rise of G.H.Mead and Fall of Robert Park,”  American Sociologist, Vol. 48, 2017, pp. 23-47.
    • Michael J. Carter and Celene Fuller, Carter, M. (2016). “Symbols, Meaning and Action: The Past, Present, and Future of Symbolic Interactionism,” Current Sociology, Vol. 64, 2016, pp. 931-961.
 Applied Symbolic Interactionism
  • If you or your students have an interest in the dramaturgical issues raised by Goffman, we recommend recent work in performance theory.  The journal Text and Performance Quarterly is a good place to begin. 
  • Exploring the notion of the “me” when dealing with conforming to social norms
    • Paul Hughes, “Using Symbolic Interactionism Insights as an Approach to Helping the Individual with Asperger’s Syndrome Overcome Barriers to Social Inclusion,” British Journal of Special Education, Vol. 43, 2016, pp. 60-74.
  • For students interested in sports
    • Shannon M. Baird and Kerry R. McGannon, “Mean(ing) to Me: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach to Aggression in Sport Psychology,” Quest, Vol. 61, 2009, pp. 377-396.
    • Ketra L. Armstrong, “Self, Situations, and Sport Consumption: An Exploratory Study of Symbolic Interactionism,” Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol. 30, 2007, pp. 111-129.
  • Symbolic interactionism and discussions of sexuality
    • Monica A. Longmore, “Symbolic Interactionism and the Study of Sexuality,” Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 35, 1998, pp. 44-57.
    • Ken Plummer, “Queers, Bodies, and Postmodern Sexualities: A Note on Revisiting the 'Sexual' in Symbolic Interactionism,” Qualitative Sociology, Vol. 26, 2003, pp. 515-530.

The Pygmalion Effect

  • For discussion of the Pygmalion Effect and self-fulfilling prophecy, see:
    • Larry W. Howard, Thomas Li-Ping Tang, and M. Jill Austin, “Teaching Critical Thinking Skills: Ability, Motivation, Intervention, and the Pygmalion Effect,” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 128, 2015, pp. 133-147.
    • Len Karakowsky, Nadia DeGama, and Kenneth McBey, “Deconstructing Higgins: Gender Bias in the Pygmalion Phenomenon,” Gender in Management: An International Journal, Vol. 32, 2017, pp. 2-18.
    • William P. Nye, “George Herbert Mead and the Paradox of Prediction,” Sociology of Religion, 38, 1977, pp. 91-105.
    • Rosenthal, R. & Jacobson, L.  Pygmalion in the Classroom, Holt, New York, 1968 (reprinted 1992 by Crown House Publishing, Norwalk, CT).
    • Norbert Wiley “The Self as Self-Fulfilling Prophecy,” Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 26, 2003, pp. 501-513.

 

Chapter  6—Coordinated Management of Meaning

  • Ronald Arnett paid tribute to Pearce’s life and scholarship in his article.
    • Ronald C. Arnett, “Philosophy of Communication as Carrier of Meaning: Adieu to W. Barnett Pearce,” Qualitative Research Reports In Communication, Vol. 14, 2013, pp. 1-9. 
  • For additional scholarship on CMM, see:
    • W. Barnett Pearce and Kimberly A. Pearce, “Extending the Theory of the Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) Through a Community Dialogue Process,” Communication Theory, Vol. 10, 2000, pp. 405-424.
    • Eerika Hedman and Eleni Gesch-Karamanlidis, “Facilitating Conversations that Matter Using Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory,” OD Practitioner, Vol. 47, 2015, pp. 41-46. 
  • For a cross-cultural, non-Western perspective, Jia argues for a less Western-centric view of effective communication incorporating the principles of CMM.
    • Wenshan Jia, “Towards a Discipline of Life Communication?,” Journal of Multicultural Discourses, Vol. 12, 2017, pp. 23-26. 
  • For interpersonal applications of CMM, Merolla and his coauthors have an excellent discussion of forgiveness in light of CMM
    • Andy J. Merolla, Shuangyue Zhang, Jennifer L. McCullough, and Shaojing Sun,”How Do You Like Your Forgiveness? Communication Style Preferences and Effects,” Communication Studies, Vol. 68, 2017, pp. 568-587. 
  • For an interesting combination of organizational communication practices, gender, and CMM, Hudak’s exploration of toy marketing is an interesting take on the theory’s concepts.
    • Kasey Clawson Hudak, “Deceiving or Disrupting the Pink Aisle? GoldieBlox, Corporate Narratives, and the Gendered Toy Debate,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, Vol. 14, 2017, pp. 158-175. 
  • For an applied CMM analysis in group settings:
    • Eerika Hedman and Eleni Gesch-Karamanlidis, “Facilitating Conversations that Matter Using Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory,” OD Practitioner, Vol. 47, 2015, pp. 41-46.
    • Eerika Hedman-Philips and J. Kevin Barge, “Facilitating Team Reflexivity About Communication,” Small Group Research, Vol. 48, 2017, pp. 255-287. 
  • CMM in the classroom:
    • Darrin S. Murray, “Navigating Toward Andragogy: Coordination and Management of Student–Professor Conversations,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 78, 2014, pp. 310-336.
Buber’s Dialogic Ethics
  • Although Buber was not a communication scholar per se, his philosophy has been extremely influential in communication circles.  In his interpersonal communication textbook, Bridges Not Walls, for example, John Stewart presents Buber as his foundation for meaningful human communication. Julia T. Wood follows a similar strategy in Everyday Encounters: An Introduction to Interpersonal Communication.  For more information on Buber, Richard L. Johannesen's Ethics in Human Communication is a good general source, as is his entry, “Buber,” in the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition (86-87). 
  • For a good collection of essays on dialogue, see Rob Anderson, Kenneth Cissna, and Ronald C. Arnett, The Reach of Dialogue: Confirmation, Voice, and Community, Hampton Press, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1994.
  • For a distinctly feminine perspective on ethics that borrows from Buber, see Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1984.

 

Chapter  7—Expectancy Violations Theory

EVT in applied situations

Burgoon’s theory has been applied to a wide variety of situations. The following represent only a few of those projects, and only ones that center around EVT. 

Judee K. Burgoon, Joseph A. Bonito, Paul Benjamin Lowry, Sean L. Humpherys, Gregory D. Moody, James E. Gaskin, and Justin Scott Giboney, “Application of Expectancy Violations Theory to Communication With and Judgments About Embodied Agents During a Decision-making Task,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 91, 2016, pp. 24-36.

Eric Fife, C. Leigh Nelson, and Kristin Zhang, “A New Horizon for a Classic Perspective: Facebook and Expectancy Violation Theory,” Journal of The Communication, Speech & Theatre Association Of North Dakota, Vol. 25, 2012/2013, pp. 13-23.

Danette Ifert Johnson and Nicole Lewis, “Perceptions of Swearing in the Work Setting: An Expectancy Violations Theory Perspective,” Communication Reports, Vol. 23, 2010, pp. 106-118.

 

EVT and relationship transgressions (including cell phone conversations)

Elizabeth L. Cohen, “Expectancy Violations in Relationships with Friends and Media Figures,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 27, 2010, pp. 97-111.

Lynne Kelly, Aimee E. Miller-Ott, and Robert L. Duran, “Sports Scores and Intimate Moments: An Expectancy Violations Theory Approach to Partner Cell Phone Behaviors in Adult Romantic Relationships,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 81, 2017, pp. 619-640.

Aimee Miller-Ott and Lynne Kelly, “The Presence of Cell Phones in Romantic Partner Face-to-Face Interactions: An Expectancy Violation Theory Approach,” Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 80, 2015, pp. 253-270.

Courtney N. Wright, and Michael E. Roloff, “You Should Just Know Why I'm Upset: Expectancy Violation Theory and the Influence of Mind Reading Expectations (MRE) on Responses to Relational Problems,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 32, 2015, pp. 10-19.

 

EVT in the classroom

Robert J. Sidelinger and Derek M. Bolen, “Compulsive Communication in the Classroom: Is the Talkaholic Teacher a Misbehaving Instructor?,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 174-196.

Robert J. Sidelinger and Derek M. Bolen, “Instructor Credibility as a Mediator of Instructors’ Compulsive Communication and Student Communication Satisfaction in the College Classroom,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 24-31.

 

Interaction Adaptation Theory

For a comprehensive look at IAT, see Judee K. Burgoon, Lesa A. Stern, and Leesa Dillman, “Interpersonal Adaptation: Dyadic Interaction Patterns,” Cambridge University Press, UK, 1995.

Recent application of IAT in various settings:

Valerie Akbulut, and Harry Weger Jr., “Predicting Responses to Bids for Sexual and Romantic Escalation in Cross-Sex Friendships,” Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 156, 2016, pp. 98-114.

Carrie D. Kennedy-Lightsey and Megan R. Dillow, “Initiating and Avoiding Communication with Mothers: Young Adult Children's Perceptions of Hurtfulness and Affirming Styles,” Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 76, 2011, pp. 482-501.

Samuel Hardman Taylor and Andrew M. Ledbetter, “Extending Media Multiplexity Theory to the Extended Family: Communication Satisfaction and Tie Strength as Moderators of Violations of Media Use Expectations,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 1369-1387.

Melinda Villagran, Joy Goldsmith, Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles, and Paula Baldwin, “Creating COMFORT: A Communication-based model for Breaking Bad News,” Communication Education, Vol. 59, 2010, pp. 220-234.

Chapter  8—Social Penetration Theory

  • If students want to learn more about social exchange theory, Griffin’s chapter-length treatment from the Second Edition is a good place to begin (available in the theory archive at www.afirstlook.com). 
  • For some applications of SPT in a technology-driven age, a few good articles to explore include:
    • Babajide Osatuyi, Katia Passerini, Aurelio Ravarini, and Sukeshini A. Grandhi, “‘Fool me once, shame on you… then, I learn.’ An examination of information disclosure in social networking sites,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 83, 2018, pp. 73-86.
    • Babajide Osatuyi, “Is Lurking an Anxiety-masking Strategy on Social Media Sites? The Effects of Lurking and Computer Anxiety on Explaining Information Privacy Concern on Social Media Platforms,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 49, pp. 324-332.
    • Erin K. Ruppel, “The Affordance Utilization Model: Communication Technology Use as Relationships Develop,” Marriage & Family Review, Vol. 51, pp. 669-686.
    • Jih-Hsin Tang and Cheng-Chung Wang, “Self-disclosure Among Bloggers: Re-examination of Social PenetrationTheory,” CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 245-250.
    • Sonja Utz, “The Function of Self-disclosure on Social Network Sites: Not Only Intimate, but also Positive and Entertaining Self-disclosures Increase the Feeling of Connection,” Computers in Human Behavior,Vol. 45, 2015, pp. 1-10. 
Johari window
  • If you present the Johari window to complement and contrast with social penetration, see:
    • Terry R. Armstrong, “Revisiting the Johari Window: Improving Communications Through Self-disclosure and Feedback,” Human Development, Vol. 27, 2006, pp. 10-14.
    • Moshe Bensimon, and Dorit Amir, “Sharing My Music with You: The Musical Presentation as a Tool for Exploring, Examining and Enhancing Self-awareness in a Group Setting,” The Journal of Creative Behavior, Vol. 44, 2010, pp. 259-277.
    • Lynn Little, “Leadership Communication and the Johari Window,” Administrator, Vol. 24, 2005, p. 4.

Chapter  9—Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Uncertainty reduction in close relationships
  • Kimberly J. M. Downs, “Family Commitment Role Perceptions, Social Support, and Mutual Children in Remarriage: A Test of Uncertainty Reduction Theory,” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 40, 2004, pp. 35-54.
  • Jennifer L. Gibbs, Nicole B. Ellison, and Chih-Hui Lai, “First Comes Love, Then Comes Google: An Investigation of Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Self-disclosure in Online Dating,” Communication Research, Vol. 38, 2011, pp. 70-100.
  • Jennifer A. Theiss and Denise H. Solomon, “Parsing the Mechanisms That Increase Relational Intimacy: The Effects of Uncertainty Amount, Open Communication About Uncertainty, and the Reduction of Uncertainty,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 34, 2008, pp. 625-654.

Relational Turbulence Theory

As alluded to in the chapter, there is an explosion of research on relational turbulence in recent years. Just a sampling of some of those projects includes: 

  • Natalie K. Ellis and Andrew M. Ledbetter, “Why Might Distance Make the Heart Grow Fonder?: A Relational Turbulence Model Investigation of the Maintenance of Long Distance and Geographically Close Romantic Relationships,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 63, 2015, pp. 568-585.
  • Leanne K. Knobloch, Lynne M. Knobloch-Fedders, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Aaron T. Ebata, and Patricia C. McGlaughlin, “Military Children’s Difficulty with Reintegration After Deployment: A Relational Turbulence Model Perspective,” Journal of Family Psychology, Vol. 31, 2017, pp. 542-552.
  • Denise H. Solomon, Leanne K. Knobloch, Jennifer A. Theiss, and Rachel M. McLaren, “Relational Turbulence Theory: Explaining Variation in Subjective Experiences and Communication Within Romantic Relationships,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 507-532.

Uncertainty reduction in the digital age

  • Marjolijn L. Antheunis, Alexander P. Schouten, Patti M. Valkenburg, and Jochen Peter, “Interactive Uncertainty Reduction Strategies and Verbal Affection in Computer-mediated Communication,” Communication Research, Vol. 39, 2012, pp. 757-780.
  • Cédric Courtois, Anissa All, and Hadewijch Vanwynsberghe, “Social Network Profiles as Information Sources for Adolescents' Offline Relations,” CyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 290-295.
  • SeoYoung Lee and Junho Choi, “Enhancing User Experience with Conversational Agent for Movie Recommendation: Effects of Self-disclosure and Reciprocity,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 103, 2017, pp. 95-105.
  • Amy May and Kelly Tenzek, “‘A Gift We are Unable to Create Ourselves’: Uncertainty Reduction in Online Classified Ads Posted by Gay Men Pursuing Surrogacy,” Journal of GLBT Family Studies, Vol. 12, pp. 430-450.
  • Amy May and Kelly E. Tenzek, “Seeking Mrs. Right: Uncertainty Reduction in Online Surrogacy Ads,” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, Vol. 12, 2011, pp. 27-33.
  • Cynthia Palmieri, Kristen Prestano, Rosalie Gandley, Emily Overton, and Qin Zhang,”The Facebook Phenomenon: Online Self-disclosure and Uncertainty Reduction,” China Media Research, Vol. 8, 2012, pp. 108-113.

Anxiety-Uncertainty Management Theory (AUM)

  • In previous editions, Griffin covered AUM in a separate chapter. That treatment is available on the website www.afirstlook.com, under the “Theory Archive.”
  • For some other articles applying AUMT and URT, see
    • Craig R. Hullett and Kim Witte, “Predicting Intercultural Adaptation and Isolation: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Test Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory,” International Journal Of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 25, 2001, pp. 125-139.
    • Ann Neville Miller and Jennifer A. Samp, “Planning Intercultural Interaction: Extending Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 87-95.

URT in the classroom

For some other teaching ideas, see

  • Marcia Alesan Dawkins, “How it's Done: Using Hitch as a Guide to Uncertainty Reduction Theory,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 136-141.
  • Yifeng Hu, “Hands-on Experience with Uncertainty Reduction Theory: An Effective and Engaging Classroom Activity,” Florida Communication Journal, Vol. 43, 2015, pp. 119-123.

Chapter 10—Social Information Processing Theory

Classic books on communication and technology

For discussion of information technology and the computer’s effect on communication, see these classic pieces:

Alan L. Porter and William H. Read, The Information Revolution: Current and Future Consequences, Ablex, Greenwich, CT, 1998.

Tom Koch, The Message is the Medium: Online All the Time for Everyone, Praeger, Westport, CT, 1996.

 

Relationship development

Kevin B. Wright, “On-line Relational Maintenance Strategies and Perceptions of Partners Within Exclusively Internet-Based and Primarily Internet-Based Relationships,” Communication Studies, Vol.55, 2004, pp. 239- 254.

Jeffrey S. McQuillen, “The Influence of Technology on the Initiation of Interpersonal Relationships,” Education, Vol. 123, 2003, pp. 616-624.

Erin K. Ruppel, Clare Gross, Arrington Stoll, Brittnie S. Peck, Mike Allen, and Sang-Yeon Kim, “Reflecting on Connecting: Meta-Analysis of Differences Between Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Self-Disclosure,” Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 22, 2017, pp. 18-34.

 

Emotions online

Daejoong Kim, Mark G. Frank, and Sung Tae Kim, “Emotional Display Behavior in Different Forms of Computer Mediated Communication,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 30, 2014, pp. 222-229.

Carmina Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Ed S. H. Tan, and Peeter W. J. Verlegh, “Expressing Emotions in Blogs: The Role of Textual Paralinguistic Cues in Online Venting and Social Sharing Posts,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 73, 2017, pp. 638-649.

Tatiana A. Vlahovic, Sam Roberts, and Robin Dunbar, “Effects of Duration and Laughter on Subjective Happiness Within Different Modes of Communication,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 17, 2017, pp. 436-450.

 

Other teaching aids for SIP

Daria S. Heinemann, “Using You've Got Mail to Teach Social Information Processing Theory and Hyperpersonal Perspective in Online Interactions,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 25, 2011, pp. 183-188.

                                             

Applied uses of SIP

David C. DeAndrea, Stephanie Tom Tong, Yuhua Jake Liang, Timothy R. Levine, and Joseph B. Walther, “When Do People Misrepresent Themselves to Others? The Effects of Social Desirability, Ground Truth, and Accountability on Deceptive Self-Presentations,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 62, 2012, pp. 400-417.

Mi Rosie Jahng and Jeremy Littau, “Interacting Is Believing: Interactivity, Social Cue, and Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility on Twitter,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 93, 2016, pp. 38-58.

Jayeon Lee and Young-shin Lim, “Who Says What About Whom: Young Voters' Impression Formation of Political Candidates on Social Networking Sites,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 553-572.

Joseph B. Walther, Elaine Hoter, Asmaa Ganayem, and Miri Shonfeld, “Computer-Mediated Communication and the Reduction of Prejudice: A Controlled Longitudinal Field Experiment Among Jews and Arabs in Israel,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 52, 2015, pp. 550-558.

 

Nonverbal cues online

Joseph B. Walther, Tracy Loh, and Laura Granka, “Let Me Count the Ways: The Interchange of Verbal and Nonverbal Cues in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Affinity,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 24, 2005, pp. 36-66.

 

Classroom uses and distance education

J. B. Arbaugh, “How Instructor Immediacy Behaviors Affect Student Satisfaction and Learning in Web-based Courses,” Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 64, 2001, pp. 42-54.

Roger N. Conaway, Susan S. Easton, and Wallace V. Schmidt, “Strategies for Enhancing Student Interaction and Immediacy in Online Courses,” Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 68,2005, pp. 23-36.

Karen Swan, “Building Learning Communities in Online Courses: The Importance of Interaction,” Education, Communication & Information, Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 23-50.

Chapter 11—Relational Dialectics

Other relevant essays by Baxter

Leslie A. Baxter, Elizabeth A. Suter, Lindsey J. Thomas, and Leah M. Seurer, “The Dialogic Construction of ‘Adoption’ in Online Foster Adoption Narratives,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 193-213.

Leslie A. Baxter and Dawn O. Braithwaite, “Relational Dialectics Theory, Applied,” in New Directions in Interpersonal Communication Research, Sandi W. Smith and Stephen R. Wilson (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2010, pp. 48-66.

Leslie A. Baxter, Kristen M. Norwood, Bryan Asbury, and Kristina M. Scharp, “Narrating Adoption: Resisting Adoption as ‘Second Best’ in Online Stories of Domestic Adoption Told by Adoptive Parents,” Journal Of Family Communication, Vol. 14, pp. 253-269.

Dawn O. Braithwaite and Leslie A. Baxter, “‘You're my parent but you're not’: Dialectical Tensions in Stepchildren's Perceptions About Communicating with the Nonresidential Parent,” Journal Of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 34, 2006, pp. 30-48. doi:10.1080/00909880500420200

 

Applications of Relational Dialectics Theory in cross-cultural and/or marginalized communities

As mentioned earlier, you might want to explore some cross-cultural implications of the theory.  Some resources, applying RDT to other settings:

Debalina Dutta, “Cultural Barriers and Familial Resources for Negotiation of Engineering Careers Among Young Women: Relational Dialectics Theory in an Asian Perspective,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 17, 2017, pp. 338-355. doi:10.1080/15267431.2017.1363045

Khaled Nasser, Yasmine Dabbous, and Dima Baba, “From Strangers to Spouses: Early Relational Dialectics in Arranged Marriages Among Muslim Families in Lebanon,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 44, 2013, pp. 387-406.

Kristen Norwood, “Grieving Gender: Trans-identities, Transition, and Ambiguous Loss,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 80, 2013, pp. 24-45.

Carolyn M. Prentice, “The Romantic and the Practical: Using RDT 2.0 to Analyze Competing Cross-cultural Discourses,” Ohio Communication Journal, Vol. 53, 2013, pp. 44-51.

Jessica D. Ptomey, “Evidence of a Dialogical and Dialectical Protestant-Catholic Relationship in Evangelical Responses to the Selection of Pope Francis: Applying Relational Dialectics Theory to Interreligious Public Discourse and ‘Dialogue,’” Journal of Communication & Religion, Vol. 38, 2015, pp. 118-133.

Jake Simmons, Russell Lowery-Hart, Shawn T. Wahl, and M. Chad McBride, “Understanding the African-American Student Experience in Higher Education Through a Relational Dialectics Perspective,” Communication Education, Vol. 62, 2013, pp. 376-394.

 

Applied, state-of-the-art research

Rebecca Amati and Annegret F. Hannawa, “Relational Dialectics Theory: Disentangling Physician-Perceived Tensions of End-of-Life Communication,” Health Communication, Vol. 29, 2014, pp. 962-973.

Jesse Fox, Jeremy L. Osborn, and Katie M. Warber, “Relational Dialectics and Social Networking Sites: The Role of Facebook in Romantic Relationship Escalation, Maintenance, Conflict, and Dissolution,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 35, 2014, pp. 527-534.

Danielle Halliwell, “Extending Relational Dialectics Theory: Exploring New Avenues of Research,” Communication Yearbook, Vol. 39, 2015, pp. 67-95.

Karyn Sporer and Paige W. Toller, “Family Identity Disrupted by Mental Illness and Violence: An Application of Relational Dialectics Theory,” Southern Communication Journal, 82, 2017, pp. 85-101.

Elizabeth A. Suter and Kristen M. Norwood, “Critical Theorizing in Family Communication Studies: (Re)reading Relational Dialectics Theory 2.0,” Communication Theory, Vol. 27, 2017, pp. 290-308.

Agnieszka Wozniak, Susan Lollis, and Sheila K. Marshall, “Competing Discourses Within Parent–Adolescent Conversations,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 31, 2014, pp. 847-867.

Erin (Sahlstein) Parcell, a former graduate student of Baxter now at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, has worked extensively in the area of the dialectical challenges in long-distance relationships.  Some articles of interest to review: 

Erin M. Sahlstein, “Relating at a Distance: Negotiating Being Together and Being Apart in Long-Distance Relationships,” Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, Vol. 21, 2004, pp. 689-710. 

Erin M. Sahlstein, “Making Plans: Praxis Strategies for Negotiating Uncertainty-Certainty in Long-Distance Relationships,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 70, 2006, pp. 147- 165.

 

Literary examples

For your male students in particular, we recommend Patrick O’Brian’s extensive series of sea novels, which features the extroverted, passionate, practical Captain Jack Aubrey and the introverted, cerebral, scientifically-minded Stephen Maturin, naval surgeon, naturalist, and secret agent.  Aubrey and Maturin’s complex, often tense, always vibrant friendship, which is developed and nurtured in vividly recorded dialogue, illustrates many dialectical elements and demonstrates that long-term close relationships embodying Baxter’s approach need not be romantic or familial.  The first novel in the series is Master and Commander, which is also the title of a 2003 film based on the series. 

Chapter 12—Communication Privacy Management Theory

In 2013, Journal of Family Communication (Vol. 13, Issue 1) released a special issue exclusively focusing on CPM theory.  Articles of note in that issue include:
  • A status report on the theory (Petronio)
  • Parent/child communication privacy (Toller & McBride)
  • Family finances (Plander)
  • Parental Facebook friend requests (Child & Westermann)
  • Same-sex marriage (Lannutti)

CPM has been applied to a variety of contexts.  In some articles/writings, the theory has gone by the name “Communication Boundary Management” (CBM).


Relational & Family

Erin D. Basinger, Erin C. Wehrman, and Kelly G. McAninch, “Grief Communication and Privacy Rules: Examining the Communication of Individuals Bereaved by the Death of a Family Member,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 16, 2016, pp. 285-302.

Erin A. Brummett and Keli Ryan Steuber, “To Reveal or Conceal?: Privacy Management Processes Among Interracial Romantic Partners,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 22-44.

Joshua R. Hammonds, “A Model of Privacy Control: Examining the Criteria That Predict Emerging Adults’ Likelihood to Reveal Private Information to Their Parents,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 591-613.

Erin E. Hollenbaugh and Nichole Egbert, “A Test of Communication Privacy Management Theory in Cross-Sex Friendships,” Ohio Communication Journal, Vol. 47, 2009, pp. 113-136.

Carrie D. Kennedy-Lightsey and Brandi N. Frisby, “Parental Privacy Invasion, Family Communication Patterns, and Perceived Ownership of Private Information,” Communication Reports, Vol. 29, 2016, pp. 75-86.

Andrew M. Ledbetter, Sarah Heiss, Kenny Sibal, Eimi Lev, Michele Battle-Fisher, and Natalie Shubert, “Parental Invasive and Children’s Defensive Behaviors at Home and Away at College: Mediated Communication and Privacy Boundary Management,” Communication Studies, Vol. 61, 2010, pp. 184-204.

Keli Ryan Steuber and Rachel M. McLaren, “Privacy Recalibration in Personal Relationships: Rule Usage Before and After an Incident of Privacy Turbulence,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 63, 2015, pp. 345-364.

 

LGBTQ Applications

Diana Breshears and Rebecca DiVerniero, “Communication Privacy Management Among Adult Children With Lesbian and Gay Parents,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 573-590.

Rose Helens-Hart, “Females’ (Non)Disclosure of Minority Sexual Identities in the Workplace From a Communication Privacy Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, Vol. 68, 2017, pp. 607-623.

Tim McKenna-Buchanan, Stevie Munz, and Justin Rudnick, “To Be or Not To Be Out in the Classroom: Exploring Communication Privacy Management Strategies of Lesbian, Gay, and Queer College Teachers,” Communication Education, Vol. 64, 2015, pp. 280-300.

Zhiwen Xiao, Xiaoming Li, Shan Qiao, Yuejiao Zhou, Zhiyong Shen, and Zhengzhu Tang, “Using Communication Privacy Management Theory to Examine HIV Disclosure to Sexual Partners/Spouses Among PLHIV in Guangxi,” AIDS Care, Vol. 27, 2015, pp. 73-82.

 

Computers/ Technology

Jeffrey T. Child, Paul M. Haridakis, and Sandra Petronio, “Blogging Privacy Rule Orientations, Privacy Management, and Content Deletion Practices: The Variability of Online Privacy Management Activity at Different Stages of Social Media Use,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, 2012, pp. 1859-1872.

Ralf De Wolf, “Group Privacy Management Strategies and Challenges in Facebook: A Focus Group Study Among Flemish Youth Organizations,” Cyberpsychology,Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 17-32.

Bethany D. Frampton and Jeffrey T. Child, “Friend or Not to Friend: Coworker Facebook Friend Requests as an Application of Communication Privacy Management Theory,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 29, 2013, pp. 2257-2264.

Heath Wesley Hooper, “An Investigation of the Role Communication Privacy Management Theory has in the Development of Social Media Policies,” Sport Journal, 2017, Vol. 19.

Airi Lampinen, “Hosting Together via Couchsurfing: Privacy Management in the Context of Network Hospitality,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 1581-1600.

Jessica Vitak, “A Digital Path to Happiness? Applying Communication Privacy Management Theory to Mediated Interactions,” in The Routledge Handbook of Media Use and Well-Being: International Perspectives on Theory and Research on Positive Media Effects, Leonard Reinecke and Mary Beth Oliver (eds.), Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2017, pp. 274-287.

Kenneth C. C. Yang, Amanda Pulido, and Yowei Kang, “Exploring the Relationship between Privacy Concerns and Social Media Use among College Students: A Communication Privacy Management Perspective,” Intercultural Communication Studies, Vol. 25, 2016, pp. 46-62.

 

Workplace & Educational

Stephanie A. Smith and Steven R. Brunner, “To Reveal or Conceal: Using Communication Privacy Management Theory to Understand Disclosures in the Workplace,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol.31, 2017, pp. 429-446.

Jason L. Snyder, “E-Mail Privacy in the Workplace: A Boundary Regulation Perspective,” Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 47, 2010, pp. 266-294.

Jason L. Snyder and Karen M. Cornetto, “Employee Perceptions of E-mail Monitoring from a Boundary Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, Vol. 60, 2009, pp. 476-492.

 

Health Communication/ Cross- cultural applications

Jennifer J. Bute and Tennley A. Vik, “Privacy Management as Unfinished Business: Shifting Boundaries in the Context of Infertility,” Communication Studies, Vol. 61, 2010, pp. 1-20.

Anna R. Herrman and Kelly E. Tenzek, “Communication Privacy Management: A Thematic Analysis of Revealing and Concealing Eating Disorders in an Online Community,” Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, Vol. 18, 2017, pp. 54-63.

Masaki Matsunaga, “Individual Dispositions and Interpersonal Concerns Underlying Bullied Victims’ Self-Disclosure in Japan and the US,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 27, 2010, pp. 1124-1148.

Nothando Ngwenya, Moraq Farquhar, and Gail Ewing, “Sharing Bad News of a Lung Cancer Diagnosis: Understanding Through Communication Privacy Management Theory,” Psycho-Oncology, Vol. 25, 2016, pp. 913-918.

Rauscher, E. A., & Durham, W. T. (2015). “As Long As You're Sure You Don't Want Any More Children”: Men's Collective Boundary Coordination of Information About Their Affirmative Vasectomy Decision. Communication Studies, Vol. 66, 186-203. doi:10.1080/10510974.2014.930917

Lynsey K. Romo, “How Formerly Overweight and Obese Individuals Negotiate Disclosure of Their Weight Loss. Health Communication,” Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 1145-1154.

Stephanie A. Smith and Steven R. Brunner, “The Great Whoosh: Connecting an Online Personal Health Narrative and Communication Privacy Management,” Health Communication, Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 12-21.

Chapter 13—Media Multiplexity Theory

Theoretical considerations

Jen Eden and Alice E. Veksler, “Relational Maintenance in the Digital Age: Implicit Rules and Multiple Modalities,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 64, 2016, pp. 119-144.

Eszter Hargittai and Y.-L. Patrick Hsieh, “From Dabblers to Omnivores: A Typology of Social Network Site Usage,” in A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites (Zizi Papacharissi, ed.), Routledge, New York, 2010, pp. 146-168.

Laura Stafford and Joshua D. Hillyer, “Information and Communication Technologies in Personal Relationships,” Review Of Communication, Vol. 12, 2012, pp. 290-312.

Samuel Hardman Taylor, Andrew M. Ledbetter, and Joseph P. Mazer, “Initial Specification and Empirical Test of Media Enjoyment Theory,” Communication Research, 2017 (published online before print).

 

Family and Intergenerational issues

Michael Chan, “Multimodal Connectedness and Quality of Life: Examining the Influences of Technology Adoption and Interpersonal Communication on Well-Being Across the Life Span,” Journal Of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 20, 2015, pp. 3-18.

Justin Peer, “Parent-Emerging Adult Relationships in the Digital Age: A Family Systems Theoretical Perspective,” in Identity, Sexuality, and Relationships Among Emeging Adults in the Digital Age (Michelle F. Wright, ed.), IGI Global, Hershey, PA, 2017, pp. 112-127.

Jennifer Schon, “‘Dad Doesn’t Text’: Examining How Parents’ Use of Information Communication Technologies Influences Satisfaction Among Emerging Adult Children,” Emerging Adulthood, Vol. 2, 2014, pp. 304-312.

Samuel Hardman Taylor and Andrew M. Ledbetter, “Extending Media Multiplexity Theory to the Extended Family: Communication Satisfaction and Tie Strength as Moderators of Violations of Media Use Expectations,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 1369-1387.

 

Friendship

Nathan Miczo, Theresa Mariani, and Crystal Donahue, “The Strength of Strong Ties: Media Multiplexity, Communication Motives, and the Maintenance of Geographically Close Friendships,” Communication Reports, Vol. 24, 2011, pp. 12-24.

Erin K. Ruppel, Tricia J. Burke, and Maura R. Cherney, “Channel Complementarity and Multiplexity in Long-Distance Friends’ Patterns of Communication Technology Use,” New Media & Society, 2017 (published online before print).

 

Facebook as relational maintenance

Michael G. Blight, Kristy Jagiello, and Erin K. Ruppel, “‘Same Stuff Different Day:’ A Mixed-Method Study of Support Seeking on Facebook,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 53, 2015, pp. 366-373.

Andrew M. Ledbetter and Joseph P. Mazer, “Do Online Communication Attitudes Mitigate the Association Between Facebook Use and Relational Interdependence? An Extension of Media Multiplexity Theory,” New Media & Society, Vol. 16, 2014, pp. 806-822.

Namkee Park, Seungyoon Lee, and Jang Hyun Kim, “Individuals’ Personal Network Characteristics and Patterns of Facebook Use: A Social Network Approach,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, 2012, pp. 1700-1707.

Artemio Ramirez, Jr., Erin M. Sumner, and John Spinda, “The Relational Reconnection Function of Social Network Sites,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 807-825.

 

Other applied contexts

Hui-Jung Chang and J. David Johnson, “Communication Networks as Predictors of Organizational Members' Media Choices,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2001, pp. 349-369.

Gustavo Mesch and Ilan Talmud, “The Quality of Online and Offline Relationships: The Role of Multiplexity and Duration of Social Relationships,” Information Society, Vol. 22, 2006, pp. 137-148.

Gustavo S. Mesch, Ilan Talmud, and Anabel Quan-Haase, “Instant Messaging Social Networks: Individual, Relational, and Cultural Characteristics,” Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 29, 2012, pp. 736-759.

Shu-Fen Tseng, Yuli Patrick Hsieh, “The Implications of Networked Individualism for Social Participation: How Mobile Phone, E-mail, and IM Networks Afford Social Participation for Rural Residents in Taiwan,” American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 59, 2015, pp. 1157-1172.

Katrien Van Cleemput, “‘I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You’: A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media,” Bulletin Of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 30, 2010, pp. 75-85.

 

 

Chapter 14—Social Judgment Theory

For the original statement of the theory, see Muzafer Sherif and Carl Hovland, Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 1961.

Healthcare 

Nili Ben-Avi, Sharon Toker, and Daniel Heller, “‘If Stress is Good for Me, It's Probably Good for You Too’: Stress Mindset and Judgment of Others' Strain,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 74, 2018, pp. 98-110.

Jeffrey D. Robinson, Janice L. Raup-Krieger, Greg Burke, Valerie Weber, and Brett Oesterling,  “The Relative Influence of Patients’ Pre-Visit Global Satisfaction with Medical Care and Patients’ Post-Visit Satisfaction with Physicians’ Communication,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 25, 2008, pp. 1-9.

 

Politics

Matthew Barnidge, “Exposure to Political Disagreement in Social Media Versus Face-to-Face and Anonymous Online Settings,” Political Communication, Vol. 34, pp. 302-321.

Christina Mölders, Niels Van Quaquebeke, and Maria Paola Paladino, “Consequences of Politicians' Disrespectful Communication Depend on Social Judgment Dimensions and Voters' Moral Identity,” Political Psychology, Vol. 38, 2017, pp. 119-135.

Sandi W. Smith, Charles K. Atkin, Dennis Martell, Rebecca Allen, and Larry Hembroff, “A Aocial Judgment Theory Approach to Conducting Formative Research in a Social Norms Campaign,”  Communication Theory, Vol. 16, 2006, pp. 141- 152.

 

Organizations and business

Alex Bitektine, “Toward a Theory of Social Judgments of Organizations: The Case of Legitimacy, Reputation, and Status,” Academy Of Management Review, Vol. 36, 2011, pp. 151-179.

Yuri Mishina, Emily S. Block, and Michael J. Mannor, “The Path Dependence of Organizational Reputation: How Social Judgment Influences Assessments of Capability and Character,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 33, 2012, pp. 459-477.

 

Theoretical comparisons

Hee Sun Park, Timothy R. Levine, Catherine Y. Kingsley Westerman, Tierney Orfgen, and Sarah Foregger, “The Effects of Argument Quality and Involvement Type on Attitude Formation and Attitude Change: A Test of Dual?Process and Social Judgment Predictions,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 33, pp. 81-102.

Shasha Teng, Kok Wei Khong, and Wei Wei Goh, “Persuasive Communication: A Study of Major Attitude-Behavior Theories in a Social Media Context,” Journal of Internet Commerce, Vol. 14, 2015, pp. 42-64.

 

Other applied contexts of SJT

Nancy DiTunnariello and Laura C. Farrell, “‘Your Life Sucks,’ But I Think ‘You Deserved It’: Social Approval and Disapproval of Messages on FMyLife.com,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 44, pp. 220-229.

Gerard T. Kyle, James D. Absher, and Alana R. Graefe, “The Moderating Role of Place Attachment on the Relationship Between Attitudes Toward Fees and Spending Preferences,” Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 25, 2003, pp. 33-50.

Moon J. Lee and Jung Won Chun, “Reading Others’ Comments and Public Opinion Poll Results on Social Media: Social Judgment and Spiral of Empowerment,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 65, 2016, pp. 479-487.

Joy N. Rumble, Lisa K. Lundy, Brittany Martin, and Sandra Anderson, “Gender and GMOs: Understanding Floridians attitudes toward GMOs through the lens of Social Judgment Theory,” Journal of Applied Communications, Vol. 101, 2017, http://newprairiepress.org/jac/vol101/iss4/1/.

 

Other teaching ideas for SJT

Jessica Mallard, “Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 197-202.

Leslie Ramos Salazar, “Changing Resistant Audience Attitudes Using Social Judgment Theory’s ‘Anchor’ Point Perspectives,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 31, 2017, pp. 90-93.

Chapter 15—Elaboration Likelihood Model

For a brief history of social influence research, see William D. Crano, “Milestones in the Psychological Analysis of Social Influence,” Group Dynamics, Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 68-80.

 

Applied contexts of ELM

Allison Lazard and Lucy Atkinson, “Putting Environmental Infographics Center Stage: The Role of Visuals at the Elaboration Likelihood Model’s Critical Point of Persuasion,” Science Communication, Vol. 37, 2015, pp. 6-33.

Edith MacDonald, Taciano Milfont, and Michael Gavin, “Applying the ElaborationLikelihoodModel to Increase Recall of Conservation Messages and Elaboration by Zoo Visitors,” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 24, 2016, pp. 866-881.

Anna R. McAlister and Danielle Bargh, “Dissuasion: The Elaboration Likelihood Model and Young Children,” Young Consumers, Vol. 17, 2016, pp. 210-225.

 

Organizational and Health Communication applications

Thomas H. Allison, Blakley C. Davis, Justin W. Webb, Jeremy C. Short, “Persuasion in crowdfunding: An elaboration likelihood model of crowdfunding performance,” Journal of Business VenturingVol. 32, 2017, pp. 707-725.

Nilesh S. Bhutada, Brent L. Rollins, and Matthew Perri III, “Impact of Animated Spokes-Characters in Print Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach,” Health Communication, Vol. 32, 2017, pp. 391-400.

Amy Bleakley, Amy B. Jordan, Michael Hennessy, Karen Glanz, Andrew Strasser, and Sarah Vaala, “Do Emotional Appeals in Public Service Advertisements Influence Adolescents’ Intention to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?,” Journal of Health Communication, Vol. 20, 2015, pp. 938-948.

John A. Fortunato, “How the Citi Olympic Sponsorship Strategy Uses the Jnowledge of the Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Journal Of Financial Services Marketing, Vol. 21, 2016, pp. 76-85.

John Fortunato, “Sponsorship and the Elaboration Likelihood Model: BMW's 2014 Winter Olympic Brand Strategy,” Journal Of Brand Strategy, Vol. 4, 2015, pp. 83-95.

Jing-Ti Han, Qun Chen, Jian-Guo Liu, Xiao-Lan Luo, and Weiguo Fan, “The Persuasion of Borrowers’ Voluntary Information in Peer to Peer Lending: An Empirical Study Based on Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 78, 2018, pp. 200-214.

 

Computer-mediated and Hashtag activism

Lanier Frush Holt, “Using the Elaboration Likelihood Model to Explain to Whom ‘#Black Lives Matter’...and to Whom it Does Not,” Journalism Practice, Vol. 12, 2018, pp. 146-161.

Hyang-Sook Kim and Mun-Young Chung, “It Matters Who Shares and Who Reads: Persuasive Outcomes of Location Check-ins on Facebook,” International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 16, 2018, pp. 135-152.

Gayle Kerr, Don E. Schultz, Philip J. Kitchen, Frank J. Mulhern, and Park Beede, “Does Traditional Advertising Theory Apply to the Digital World? A Replication Analysis Questions the Relevance of the Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 55, 2015, pp. 390-400.

Yoon-Joo Lee and Hoyoung Ahn, “The Interaction Effects of Social Norms and Dissatisfaction Toward Drinking on Willingness to Visit and Comment on Binge Drinking Prevention Facebook,” Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 23, 2017, pp. 813-833.

 

Theoretical concerns and comparisons

Jaehwan Kwon and Dhananjay Nayakankuppam, “Strength without Elaboration: The Role of Implicit Self-Theories in Forming and Accessing Attitudes,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 42, 2015, pp. 316-339.

Alfred Kobsa, Hichang Cho, and Bart P. Knijnenburg, “The Effect of Personalization Provider Characteristics on Privacy Attitudes and Behaviors: An Elaboration Likelihood Model Approach,” Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 67, 2016, pp. 2587-2606.

 

Other relevant articles by Richard Petty or Cacioppo

Pablo Briñol, Richard E. Petty, Geoffrey R. O. Durso, and Derek D. Rucker, “Power and Persuasion: Processes by Which Perceived Power Can Influence Evaluative Judgments,” Review of General Psychology, Vol. 21, 2017, 223-241.

John T. Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, and Richard E. Petty, “The Neuroscience of Persuasion: A Review with an Emphasis on Issues and Opportunities,” Social Neuroscience, Vol. 13, 2018, pp. 129-172.

Beatriz Gandarillas, Pablo Briñol, Richard E. Petty, Darío Díaz, “Attitude Change as a Function of the Number of Words in Which Thoughts are Expressed,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 74, 2018, pp. 196-211.

Javier Horcajo, Pablo Briñol, and Richard E. Petty, “Majority Versus Minority Source Status and Persuasion: Processes of Primary and Secondary Cognition,” in Majority and Minority Influence: Societal Meaning and Cognitive Elaboration, Stamos Papastamou, Antonis Gardikiotis, and Gerasimos Prodromitis (eds.), Routledge/Taylor & Francis, New York, 2017, pp. 98-116.

Richard E. Petty, “Two Routes to Persuasion,” in Scientists Making a Difference: One Hundred Eminent Behavioral and Brain Scientists Talk About Their Most Important Contributions, Robert J. Sternberg, Susan T. Fiske, and Donald J. Foss (eds.), Cambride University Press, New York, 2016, pp. 373-376.

S. Christian Wheeler, Richard E. Petty, and George Y. Bizer, “Self-Schema Matching and Attitude Change: Situational and Dispositional Determinants of Message Elaboration,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, 2005, pp. 787-797.

 

Emotions in persuasion

David DeSteno, Richard E. Petty, Derek D. Rucker, Duane T. Wegener, and Julia Braverman, “Discrete Emotions and Persuasion: The Role of Emotion-Induced Expectancies,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 86, 2004, pp. 43-56.

Jonathan Hasford, David M. Hardesty, and Blair Kidwell, “More Than a Feeling: Emotional Contagion Effects in Persuasive Communication,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 52, 2015, pp. 836-847.

Fang-Chi Lu and Jayati Sinha, “Speaking to the Heart: Social Exclusion and Reliance on Feelings Versus Reasons in Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 27, 2017, pp. 409-421.

Gerben A. VanKleef, Helma van den Berg, and Marc W. Heerdink, “The Persuasive Power of Emotions: Effects of Emotional Expressions on Attitude Formation and Change,” Journal of Applied Psychology100, 2015, pp. 1124-1142.

 

Ethical reflections

For the classical source for the analogy between the lover and the persuader, see Plato’s Phaedrus

For a discussion that parallels the chapter’s discussion of  “topology of false (unethical) lovers”, see Wayne Brockriede, “Arguers as Lovers,” Philosophy & Rhetoric, Vol. 5, 1972, pp. 1-11. 

Chapter 16—Cognitive Dissonance

For an intriguing application of cognitive dissonance theory to HIV/AIDS prevention, see Richard M. Perloff, Persuading People to Have Safer Sex: Applications of Social Science to the AIDS Crisis, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2001, pp. 82-83. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Amanda S. Hinojosa, William L. Gardner, H. Jack Walker, Claudia Cogliser, and Daniel Gullifor, “A Review of Cognitive Dissonance Theory in Management Research: Opportunities for Further Development,” Journal of Management, Vol. 43, 2017, pp. 170-199.

Kevin T. Mahoney, “Equity Theory at 50,” TIP: The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, Vol. 51, 2013, pp. 158-161.

April McGrath, “Dealing with Dissonance: A Review of Cognitive Dissonance Reduction,” Social and Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 11, 2017, published online only.

Shasha Teng, Kok Wei Khong, and Wei Wei Goh, “Persuasive Communication: A Study of Major Attitude-Behavior Theories in a Social Media Context,” Journal of Internet Commerce, 14, 2015, pp. 42-64.

 

Applied research using cognitive dissonance:

Chyng Feng Sun and Erica Scharrer, “Staying True to Disney: College Students’ Resistance to Criticism of The Little Mermaid,” Communication Review, Vol. 7, 2004, pp. 35-55.

Mary E. Kaplar and Anne K. Gordon, “The Enigma of Altruistic Lying: Perspective Differences in What Motivates and Justifies Lie Telling Within Romantic Relationships,” Personal Relationships, Vol. 11, 2004, pp. 489-507.

Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick and Simon M. Lavis, “Selecting Serious or Satirical, Supporting or Stirring News? Selective Exposure to Partisan versus Mockery News Online Videos,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 67, 2017, pp. 54-81.

David C. Matz and Wendy Wood, “Cognitive Dissonance in Groups: The Consequences of Disagreement,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 88, 2005, pp. 22-37.

Blake M. McKimmie, “CognitiveDissonancein Groups,” Social & Personality Psychology Compass, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 202-212.

Julie A. Schumacher and Amy M. Smith Slep, “Attitudes and Dating Aggression: A Cognitive Dissonance Approach,” Prevention Science, Vol. 5, 2004, pp. 231-243.

Mark Ward Sr., “Cognition, Culture, and Charity: Sociolinguistics and 'Donor Dissonance’ in a Baptist Denomination,” Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary & Nonprofit Organizations, Vol. 26, 2015, pp. 574-603.

 

Ethical Considerations

Blake M. McKimmie, Deborah J. Terry, Michael A. Hogg, Anthony S. R. Manstead, Russell Spears, and Bertjan Doosje, “I’m a Hypocrite, but So is Everyone Else: Group Support and the Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance,” Group Dynamics, Vol. 7, 2003, pp. 214-224.

Zhi Xing Xu, Hing Keung Ma, Yue Wang, and Jian Li, “Maybe I Am Not as Moral as I Thought: Calibrating Moral Identity After Immoral Action,” Current Psychology, 2018 (published online before print).

 

Chapter 17—Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making

Theoretical considerations

Dennis S. Gouran, “Has Communication Research Made a Difference? A Response to the Respondents,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 38, 2010, pp. 435-442.

Lise VanderVoort, “Functional and Causal Explanations in Group Communication Research,” Communication Theory, Vol. 12, 2002, pp. 469-486.

Gwen M. Wittenbaum, Andrea B. Hollingshead, Paul B. Paulus, Randy Y. Hirokawa, Deborah G. Ancona, Randall S. Peterson, Karen A. Jehn, and Kay Yoon, “The Functional Perspective as a Lens for Understanding Groups,” Small Group Research, Vol. 35, 2004, pp. 17-43.

 

Applied contexts

Peter DeScioli and Robert Kurzban, “The Company You Keep: Friendship Decisions from a Functional Perspective,” in Social Judgment and Decision Making, Joachim I. Krueger (ed.), Psychology Press, New York, 2012, pp. 209-225.

Jennifer N. Ervin, Joseph A. Bonito, and Joann Keyton, “Convergence of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Processes Across Group Meetings,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 84, 2017, pp. 200-220.

Andrew P. Knight and Noah Eisenkraft, “Positive is Usually Good, Negative is Not Always Bad: The Effects of Group Affect on Social Integration and Task Performance,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 100, 2015, pp. 1214-1227.

Elaine M. Wittenberg-Lyles, Ginnifer Cie' Gee, Debra Parker Oliver, and George Demiris, “What Patients and Families Don't Hear: Backstage Communication in Hospice Interdisciplinary Team Meetings,” Journal of Housing for the Elderly, Vol. 23, 2009, pp. 92-105.

 

Habermas and discourse ethics

For further discussion of Habermas, see Karen A. Foss, "Habermas," in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Taylor & Francis, New York, 2010, pp. 309-11. 

The journal Communication Theory published a special issue on Habermas in 2007 (Vol. 17, Issue 4).

Walter Fisher offers a brief critique of Habermas in: Walther R. Fisher, Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action, University of South Carolina Press, 1989, pp. 91-92. 

Chapter 18—Symbolic Convergence Theory

For further discussion of Bormann’s work, see Sonja K. Foss, “Fantasy-Theme Criticism,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 5th ed, Waveland, Long Grove, IL, 2018, pp. 105-140. 

For a provocative book-length application of Bormann’s notion of symbolic convergence to the culture of a small group, see Moya Ann Ball, Vietnam-on-the-Potomac, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1992.

  • A condensed version of this study is Moya Ann Ball, “Vacillating About Vietnam: Secrecy, Duplicity, and Confusion in the Communication of President Kennedy and His Advisors,” in Group Communication in Context: Studies of Natural Groups, Lawrence R. Frey (ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1994,  pp. 181-198. 

Another excellent book-length application is Mara B. Adelman and Lawrence R. Frey, The Fragile Community: Living Together with AIDS, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1997. (This book also overlaps nicely with the bona fide group perspective presented in chapter 17 on the functional perspective).

 

Theoretical considerations

For a critique of symbolic convergence theory, see Joshua Gunn, “Refiguring Fantasy: Imagination and its Decline in U.S. Rhetorical Studies” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 89, 2003, pp. 41-60. 

  • For a response to Gunn’s article, see Ernest G. Bormann, John F. Cragan, and Donald C. Shields, “Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 89, pp. 366-372.
  • Gunn then responded to their response: Joshua Gunn, “Response,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 89, p. 373.

Alaina C. Zanin, Carrisa S. Hoelscher, and Michael W. Kramer, “Extending SymbolicConvergenceTheory: A Shared Identity Perspective of a Team’s Culture,” Small Group Research. Vol. 47, 2016, pp. 438-472.

 

Applied contexts of Bormann’s theory and fantasy theme analysis

Aubrie S. Adams, “Needs Met Through Role-Playing Games: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of Dungeons & Dragons,” Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research, Vol. 12, 2013, pp. 69-86.

Dawn O. Braithwaite, Paul Schrodt, and Jody Koenig Kellas, “Symbolic Convergence Theory: Communication, Dramatizing Messages, and Rhetorical Visions in Families,” in Engaging Theories in Family Communication, Dawn O Braithwaite and Leslie A. Baxter (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006, pp. 146-161.

Michael E. Burns, Laura C. Farrell, Judy C. Pearson, and Derek A. Jorgenson, “Spirituality's Influence on Interpersonal Competence and Friend Group Satisfaction,” Journal of the Communication, Speech & Theatre Association of North Dakota, Vol. 29, 2016/2017, pp. 28-41.

Margaret E. Duffy and Janis Teruggi Page, “Does Political Humor Matter? You Betcha! Comedy TV's Performance of the 2008 Vice Presidential Debate,” Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 545-565.

Amanda Hinnant and Elizabeth Hendrickson, “Rhetorical Visions of Health: A Fantasy-Theme Analysis of Celebrity Articles,” Celebrity Studies, Vol. 3, 2012, 197-212.

Janis Teruggi Page, Margaret Duffy, Cynthia Frisby, and Gregory Perreault, “Richard Sherman Speaks and Almost Breaks the Internet: Race, Media, and Football,” Howard Journal of Communications, Vol. 27, 2016, pp. 270-289.

Brian Simmons, “A Fantasy Theme Analysis of Ex-Christians' Online Deconversion Narratives,” Northwest Journal of Communication, Vol. 42, 2014, pp. 117-141.

Chris Underation, “Seeding the Vision: Symbolic Convergence Theory and Aimee Semple McPherson,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 20, 2012, pp. 274-289.

Fred Vultee, “Man-Child in the White House: The Discursive Construction of Barack Obama in Reader Comments at foxnews.com,” Journalism Studies, Vol. 13, 2012, pp. 54-70.

 

Cross-cultural applications of SCT

Verónica Calvillo, “Symbolic Convergence in Bracero Corrido Narratives,” Aztlan, Vol. 42, 2017, pp. 99-126.

John L. Marambio and Chad Tew, “Clash in Paradise: A Fantasy Theme Analysis of A Day Without a Mexican,” Journal of American Culture, Vol. 29, 2006, pp. 475-492.

Elaine McKewon, “Talking Points Ammo: The Use of Neoliberal Think Tank Fantasy Themes to Delegitimise Scientific Knowledge of Climate Change in Australian Newspapers,” Journalism Studies, Vol. 13, 2012, pp. 277-297.

Mei Wu and Wen-bo Zhu, “Rise of China or Western Conspiracy? A Fantasy Theme Analysis,” China Media Research, Vol. 13, 2017, pp. 23-36.

Demi Simi and Jonathan Matusitz, “War Rape Survivors of the Second Congo War: A Perspective from Symbolic Convergence Theory,” Africa Review, Vol. 6, 2014, pp. 81-93.

Emil B. Towner, “Transcripts of Tragedy and Truths: An Analysis of Rwanda's Genocide Trial Documents,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 23, 2015, pp. 284-297.

 

Chapter 19—Cultural Approach to Organizations

If you enjoy Pacanowsky’s work, we recommend “Postscript: A Small-Town Cop: Communication In, Out, and About a Crisis,” Communication and Organizations: An Interpretive Approach, ed. Linda Putnam and Michael Pacanowsky (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1983), 261-82. 

Paul Schrodt provides an empirical examination of the relationship between group and individual identity in “The Relationship Between Organizational Identification and Organizational Culture: Employee Perceptions of Culture and Identification in a Retail Sales Organization,” Communication Studies 53 (Summer 2002): 189-202.

As Linda Smircich's comments suggest, the tension between pragmatically based research and ethnography free of management constraints and agendas is a significant issue in the field of organizational communication.  Nick Trujillo's “Corporate Philosophy and Professional Baseball: (Re)defining the Texas Rangers,” Case Studies in Organizational Communication, ed. Beverly Davenport Sypher (New York: Guilford, 1990), 87-110, exemplifies the tension.  Although the article is presented as a scholarly case study of the team, it also functions as a public-relations piece for its management, celebrating the efforts of top officers to alter the corporation's culture.  Trujillo, who co-authored several pieces with Pacanowsky, demonstrates the difficulty of serving two masters.  We particularly recommend this piece for those interested in athletic organizations. 

 

Organizational Stories

Rosemary A. Brander, Margo Paterson, and Yolande E. Chan, “Fostering Change in Organizational Culture Using a Critical Ethnographic Approach,” The Qualitative Report, Vol. 17, 2012, pp. 1-27.

Barbara Czarniawska, Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity, University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Paul Collier, “The Cultural Foundations of Economic Failure: A Conceptual Toolkit,” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 126, 2016, pp. 5-24.

Anne-Laure Fayard and John Van Maanen, “Making Culture Visible: Reflections on Corporate Ethnography,” Journal of Organizational Ethnography, Vol. 4, 2015, pp. 4-27.

Cristian Odagiu and Marius Pi?urlea, “Organizational Change Management: A Cultural Approach,” Proceedings of the Scientific Conference AFASES, May 2012, pp. 157-163.

 

Applied contexts

Diane Gavin, “Starbucks Exceptionalism: An Institutional Ethnographic Exploration of Coffee Culture in America,” Journal of Psychological Issues In Organizational Culture, Vol. 4, 2013, pp. 44-58.

John Gribas and Cal W. Downs, “Metaphoric Manifestations of Talking ‘Team’ with Team Novices,” Communication Studies, Vol.53, 2002, pp. 112-28.

Sherwyn P. Morreale and Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak, “Organizational Trust in Cultures with a History of Distrust: A Qualitative Study of Polish and Russian Leaders’ Perspectives and Experiences,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 44, 2015, pp. 27-43.

Heather C. Trepal, Ioana Boie, and Victoria E. Kress, “A Relational Cultural Approach to Working with Clients with Eating Disorders,”Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 90, 2012, pp. 346-356.

 

Clifford Geertz

Check out Geertz’s autobiographical piece, which provides a summary both of his career and the field of cultural anthropology in general: Clifford Geertz, “An Inconstant Profession: The Anthropological Life in Interesting Times,” Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 31, 2002, pp. 1-19.

 

Other pieces of note:

Beth Eddy, “Learning to Understand Others: The Pragmatic Rhetoric of Ethnography and Religious Ethics in Clifford Geertz’s Works and Lives,” Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, Vol. 22, 2014, pp. 137-157.

Clifford Geertz, “Shifting Aims, Moving Targets: On the Anthropology of Religion,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 11, 2005, pp. 1-15.

Clifford Geertz, “What is a state if it is not a sovereign? Reflections on Politics in Complicated Places,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 45, 2004, pp. 577- 594.

Clifford Geertz, “Religion as a Cultural System,” in Language, Truth, and Religious Belief: Studies in Twentieth-Century Theory and Method in Religion, Nancy K. Frankenberry and Hans H. Penner (eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, 1999, pp. 176-217.

J. K. Gibson-Graham, “Rethinking the Economy with Thick Description and Weak Theory,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 55, 2014, pp. S147-S153.

Michael G. Peletz, “Transgenderism and Gender Pluralism in Southeast Asia Since Early Modern Times,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 47, 2006, pp. 309-340.

 

Ethnography

H. L. Goodall Jr., “Deep Play in a Poker Rally: A Sunday Among the Ferraristi of Long Island,” Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 10, 2004, pp. 731- 767. 

Miriam Dempsey Page, “Clifford Geertz and Beyond: The Interpretive Interview/Essay and Reflexive Ethnography,” 1997, available online at https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED408618.pdf

Eric D. Teman and Maria K. E. Lahman, “Broom Closet or Fish Bowl? An Ethnographic Exploration of a University Queer Center and Oneself,” Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 18, 2012, pp. 341-354.

Saskia Witteborn, Trudy Milburn, T., and Evelyn Y. Ho, “The Ethnography of Communication as Applied Methodology: Insights from Three Case Studies,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 188-194.

Chapter 20—Communicative Constitutions of Organizations

Theoretical considerations

Heather E. Canary, Maria Blevins, and Shireen S. Ghorbani, “Organizational Policy Communication Research: Challenges, Discoveries, and Future Directions,” Communication Reports, Vol. 28, 2015, pp. 48-64.

François Cooren, Frédérik Matte, Chantal Benoit-Barné, and Boris H. J. M. Brummans, “Communication as Ventriloquism: A Grounded-in-Action Approach to the Study of Organizational Tensions,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 80, 2013, pp. 255-277.

François Cooren, “Arguments for the In-Depth Study of Organizational Interactions: A Rejoinder to McPhee, Myers, and Trethewey,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 19, 2006, pp. 327-340.

Matthew A. Koschmann, Matthew G. Isbell, M. G., and Matthew L. Sanders, (2015). “Connecting Nonprofit and Communication Scholarship: A Review of Key Issues and a Meta-Theoretical Framework for Future Research,” Review of Communication, Vol. 15, 2015, pp. 200-220.

Timothy Kuhn, “Negotiating the Micro-Macro Divide: Thought Leadership from Organizational Communication for Theorizing Organization,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 26, 2012, pp. 543-584.

Karen K. Myers, “Workplace Relationships and Membership Negotiation,” in New Directions in Interpersonal Communication Research, Sandi W. Smith and Steven R. Wilson (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2010, pp. 135-156.

Mike Reed, “Is Communication Constitutive of Organization?,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 151-157.

Elizabeth D. Wilhoit, “Organizational Space and Place Beyond Container or Construction: Exploring Workspace in the Communicative Constitution of Organizations,”  Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 247-275.

 

Applied examples of CCO

Oana Brindusa Albu and Michael Etter, “Hypertextuality and Social Media: A Study of the Constitutive and Paradoxical Implications of Organizational Twitter Use,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 5-31.

Kathryn Aten and Gail Fann Thomas, “Crowdsourcing Strategizing: Communication Technology Affordances and the Communicative Constitution of Organizational Strategy,” International Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 53, pp. 148-180.

Pauline Hope Cheong, Jennie M. Hwang, and Boris H. J. M. Brummans, “Transnational Immanence: The Autopoietic Co-Constitution of a Chinese Spiritual Organization Through Mediated Communication,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 7-25.

Michal Izak, (2009). “Spirituality in Organization: A Dubious Idea (?): Historically Oriented Sensemaking in Spiritually Imbued Organizations,” Tamara Journal For Critical Organisation Inquiry, Vol. 8, 2009, pp. 73-88.

Joel O. Iverson and Robert D. McPhee, “Knowledge Management in Communities of Practice: Being True to the Character of Knowledge,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 16, 2002, pp. 259-266.

 

Karl Weick and the Information Systems Approach to Organizations

Stephen Cummings and Duncan Angwin, “Stratography: The Art of Conceptualizing and Communicating Strategy,” Business Horizons, Vol. 54, 2011, pp. 435-446.

David M. Kopp, Irena Nikolovska, Katie P. Desiderio, and Jeffrey T. Guterman, “‘Relaaax, I Remember the Recession in the Early 1980s ...’: Organizational Storytelling as a Crisis Management Tool,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 22, pp. 373-385.

Stephen A. Leybourne, “Improvisation as a Way of Dealing with Ambiguity and Complexity,” Graziadio Business Report, 2010, Vol. 13, pp. 1-7.

Sally Maitlis and Scott Sonenshein, “Sensemaking in Crisis and Change: Inspiration and Insights from Weick (1988),” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 47, 2010, pp. 551-580.

Karl E. Weick, “Reflections on Enacted Sensemaking in the Bhopal Disaster,” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 47, pp. 537-550.

 

Discussion of Organization Communication theory more generally

Jonny Holmström and Duane Truex, “Dropping Your Tools: Exploring When and How Theories Can Serve as Blinders in IS Research,” Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 28, 2011, pp. 283-294.

Robert D. McPhee and Pamela Zaug, “Organizational Theory, Organizational Communication, Organizational Knowledge, and Problematic Integration,” Journal of Communication, 51, 2001, pp. 574-591.

John A. A. Sillince, “Can CCO Theory Tell Us How Organizing is Distinct from Markets, Networking, Belonging to a Community, or Supporting a Social Movement?,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 24, 2010, pp. 132-138.

Chapter 21—Critical Theory of Communication in Organizations

Theoretical considerations

Stanley Deetz, “Critical Theory,” in Engaging Organizational Communication Theory:  Multiple Perspectives, Steve May and Dennis K. Mumby (eds.), Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2004, pp. 85- 112.

Norman K. Denzin, “Critical Pedagogy and Democratic Life or a Radical Democratic Pedagogy,” Cultural Studies Critical Methodologies. Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 379-397.

Annette N. Markham, “Disciplining the Future: A Critical Organizational Analysis of Internet Studies,” Information Society, Vol. 21, 2005, pp. 257-267.

 

Applied contexts for Critical Theory in Organizations

Stanley Deetz, “Engagement as Co-Generative Theorizing,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 36, 2008, pp. 289-297.

Laurie K. Lewis, Amy M. Schmisseur, Keri K. Stephens, and Kathleen E. Weir, “Advice on Communicating During Organizational Change: The Content of Popular Press Books,” Journal of Business Communication, Vol. 43, 2006, pp. 113-137.

Tiina Seppälä, “A Critical Analysis of a Theoretical Debate on Power of Social Movements – a Case Study of the New Anti-War Movement,” Journal of Critical Studies In Business & Society, Vol. 2, 2011, pp. 10-29.

 

Writings by Deetz

Deetz is a very prolific writer.  Just a sampling of his works include:

Stanley Deetz, “Resistance: Would struggle by any other name be as sweet?,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 21, 2008, pp. 387-392.

Stanely Deetz and Maria Hegbloom, “Situating the Political Economy and Cultural Studies Conversation in the Processes of Living and Working,” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, Vol. 4, 2007, pp. 323-326.

Robert L. Heath, W. Barnett Pearce, John Shotter, Jamse R. Taylor, Astrid Kersten, Ted Zorn, Juliet Roper, Judy Motion, and Stanley Deetz, “The Processes of Dialogue: Participation and Legitimation,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 19, 2006, pp. 341-375.

Stanley Deetz and Jennifer Simpson, “Critical Organizational Dialogue:  Open Formation and the Demand of ‘Otherness’,” in Dialogue: Theorizing Difference in Communication Studies, Rob Anderson, Leslie A. Baxter, and Kenneth N. Cissna (eds.)Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, 2004, pp. 141-158.

Stanley Deetz and Devon Brown, “Conceptualizing Involvement, Participation and Workplace Decision Processes: A Communication Theory Perspective,” in Key Issues in Organizational Communication, Dennis Tourish and Owen Hargie (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2004, pp. 172-187.

Tanni Haas and Stanley Deetz, “The Politics and Ethics of Knowledge Construction in Corporations:  Dialogic Interaction and Self-Other Relations,” in The Foundations of Management Knowledge, Paul Jeffcutt (ed.), Routledge, New York, 2004, pp. 208-230.

Tim Newton, Stan Deetz, and Mike Reed, “Responses to Social Constructionism and Critical Realism in Organization Studies,” Organization Studies, Vol. 32, 2011, pp. 7-26.

 

Additional teaching ideas

Amy Franzini, “A Final Organizational Communication Project: Using the Television Series The Office to Engage College Students,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 21, 2007, pp. 133-136.

Cerise L. Glenn, “Activism or ‘Slacktivism?’: Digital Media and Organizing for Social Change,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 29, 2015, pp. 81-85.

Anastacia Kurylo, “Teaching about Assessment in Professional Organizations,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 21, 2007, pp. 93-98.

Chapter 22—The Rhetoric

Three general resources on Aristotle’s rhetoric and its context are:

George A. Kennedy, The Art of Persuasion in Ancient Greece, Princeton University Press, 1963, pp. 82-114.

Thomas M. Conley, Rhetoric in the European Tradition, University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 13-17.

Janet M. Atwill, “Aristotle,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 26-30. 

For general information on neo-Aristotelian criticism, see Sonja K. Foss, “Neo-Aristotelian Criticism: Genesis of Rhetorical Criticism,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 5th ed., Sonja K. Foss (ed.), Waveland, Long Grove, IL, 2018, pp. 29-40.

 

Theoretical concerns

Jennifer Reilly Bluma, “Weaving Ropes with the Desert Fathers: (Re)Inventing Rhetorical Theory as Silence and Listening,” International Journal Of Listening, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 134-150.

Ronald F. Duska, “Why Business Ethics Needs Rhetoric: An Aristotelian Perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly,” Vol. 24, 2014, pp. 119-134.

Frans H. van Eemeren, “In What Sense Do Modern Argumentation Theories Relate to Aristotle? The Case of Pragma-Dialectics,” Argumentation, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 49-70.

Allison M. Prasch, “Toward a Rhetorical Theory of Deixis,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 102, 2016, pp. 166-193. (Note: This article was the 2017 recipient of NCA’s Golden Monograph Award. For advanced students who are eager to dig into the cutting edge of rhetorical scholarship, it’s a great choice for advanced reading.)

Lynda Walsh, Nathaniel A. Rivers, Jenny Rice, Laurie E. Gries, Jennifer L. Bay, Thomas Rickert, and Carolyn R. Miller, “Forum: Bruno Latour on Rhetoric,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol. 47, 2017, pp. 403-462; see especially “The Appeal(s) of Latour,” pp. 454-459.

 

Applied Contexts

Kenneth R. Chase, “Aristotle: The Good Life,” in An Encyclopedia of Communication Ethics: Goods in Contention, Ronald C. Arnett, Annette M. Holba, and Susan Mancino (eds.), Peter Lang, New York, 2018, pp. 26-30.

Peter L. Jennings and Sean T. Hannah, “Leader Ethos: How Character Contributes to the Social Influence of the Leader,” in Leader Interpersonal and Influence Skills: The Soft Skills of Leadership, Ronald E. Riggio and Sherylle J. Tan (eds.), Routledge, New York, 2014, pp. 141-172. New York, NY, US: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Sofia Kaliarnta, “Using Aristotle’s Theory of Friendship to Classify Online Friendships: A Critical Counterview,” Ethics and Information Technology, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 65-79.

Nida Aslam Khan and Jami Moiz, “The Discourse: Doing it Differently- the Oreo Princess Campaign,” IBA Business Review, Vol. 11, 2016, pp. 85-93.

Paul A. Lucas, “The Rhetoric of Brands: How Value is Generated Without Substance,” International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, Vol. 6, 2014, pp. 18-24.

Paul Stob, “Lonely Courage, Commemorative Confrontation, and Communal Therapy: William James Remembers the Massachusetts 54th,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, Vol. 98, 2012, pp. 249-271.

Alexander Tevi and Scott Koslow, “How Rhetoric Theory Informs the Creative Advertising Development Process: Reconciling Differences Between Advertising Scholarship and Practice,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 58, 2018, pp. 111-128.

 

Enthymeme

James Fredal, “Enthymemes in the Orators,” Advances in The History Of Rhetoric, Vol. 19, 2016, pp. 31-49.

 

Other teaching ideas

Nick J. Sciullo, “Using Hip-Hop Music and Music Videos to Teach Aristotle's Three Proofs,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 165-169.

Chapter 23—Dramatism

For a little inspiration and sensible advice about the nature of Burke’s theory (a theory which can feel overwhelming to students), we suggest Arthur Quinn, “Teaching Burke: Kenneth Burke and the Rhetoric of Ascent,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol. 25, 1995, pp. 231-36.  Those with an interest in intellectual history will appreciate Quinn’s effort to place Burke within the larger tradition of Western thought. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Floyd D. Anderson and Lawrence J. Prelli, “Kenneth Burke’s Agonistic Theory of Knowledge,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 82, 2018, pp. 181-193.

Robert Prus, “Kenneth Burke's Dramatistic Pragmatism: A Missing Link Between Classical Greek Scholarship and the Interactionist Study of Human Knowing and Acting,” Qualitative Sociological Review, Vol. 13, 2017, pp. 6-58.

Jennifer Richards, “Equipment for Thinking: or Why Kenneth Burke is Still Worth Reading,” Studies in Philosophy and Education, Vol. 34, 2015, pp. 363-375.

Clarke Rountree and John Rountree, “Burke's Pentad as a Guide for Symbol-Using Citizens,” Studies In Philosophy and Education, Vol. 34, 2015, pp. 349-362.

 

Applications of Burke’s theory

Barry Brummett, “What Popular Films Teach Us About Values: Locked Inside with the Rage Virus,” Journal of Popular Film and Television, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 61-67.

Amanda Nell Edgar, “R&B Rhetoric and Victim-Blaming Discourses: Exploring the Popular Press's Revision of Rihanna's Contextual Agency,” Women's Studies In Communication, Vol. 37, 2014, pp. 138-158.

Molly Hartzog, “Scapegoating in the Wild: A Burkean Analysis of Two Outdoor Adventures Gone Wrong,” Environmental Communication, Vol. 9, 2015, pp. 520-538.

Mike Milford, “Kenneth Burke's Punitive Priests and the Redeeming Prophets: The NCAA, the College Sports Media, and the University of Miami Scandal,” Communication Studies, Vol. 66, 2015, pp. 45-62.

Mollie K. Murphy and Tina M. Harris, “White Innocence and Black Subservience: The Rhetoric of White Heroism in The Help,” Howard Journal Of Communications, Vol. 29, 2018, pp. 49-62.

Andrea J. Terry, “The Church Made Me Do It: Identity and Apology in Marin Foundation Video Confessionals,” Journal Of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 39, 2015, pp. 298-318.

Francesca Marie Smith and Thomas A. Hollihan, “‘Out of Chaos Breathes Creation’: Human Agency, Mental Illness, and Conservative Arguments Locating Responsibility for the Tucson Massacre,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs, Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 585-618.

Shannon Walters, “Cool Aspie Humor: Cognitive Difference and Kenneth Burke's Comic Corrective in The Big Bang Theory and Community,” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, Vol. 7, 2013, pp. 271-288.

 

Other teaching ideas

Samuel L. Head, “Teaching Grounded Audiences: Burke's Identification in Facebook and Composition,” Computers & Composition, Vol. 39, 2016, pp. 27-40.

Chapter 24—Narrative Paradigm

Walter Fisher

Other significant works written by Fisher not mentioned in the chapter include:

  • Walter R. Fisher, “The Narrative Paradigm and the Interpretation and the Assessment of Historical Texts,” Argumentation and Advocacy, Vol. 25, 1988, pp. 50-53.
  • Walter R. Fisher, “Narration, Knowledge, and the Possibility of Wisdom,” in Rethinking Knowledge: Reflections Across the Disciplines, Robert F. Goodman and Walter Fisher (ed.), State University of New York Press, Albany, 1995, pp. 169-192.

 

Narrative criticism

John F. Cragan and Donald C. Shields, Symbolic Theories in Applied Communication Research: Bormann, Burke, and Fisher, Hampton Press, New York, 1995, pp. 91-122 & 235-67. 

Sonja K. Foss, “Narrative Criticism,” in Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 5th ed., Sonja K. Foss (ed.), Waveland, Long Grove, IL, 2018, pp. 319-366.  

Arthur Asa Berger, Narratives in Popular Culture, Media, and Everyday Life, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1997.

Teun Dubbelman, “Playing the Hero: How Games Take the Concept of Storytelling from Representation to Presentation,” Journal of Media Practice, Vol. 12, 2011, pp. 157-172

 

Theoretical and pedagogical considerations

For further information on the concept of the discourse community, see M. Jimmie Killingsworth, “Discourse Community,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 194-196.

Destiny Brady, “Theory Synthesis: A Narrative Theory for Nursing Pedagogy,” Nursing Research, Vol. 65, 2016, pp. E77-E78. (Brief abstract is located in article titled “28th Annual Scientific Sessions Abstracts.”)

Melissa Hobart, “My Best Friend's Brother's Cousin Knew This Guy Who … : Hoaxes, Legends, Warnings, and Fisher's Narrative Paradigm,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 90-93.

Ashley Rives and Allison Wynhoff Olsen, “Where's the Rhetoric?,” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 59, 2015, pp. 161-170.

 

Applied contexts of Fisher’s paradigm

Mary Angela Bock and David Alan Schneider, “The Voice of Lived Experience: Mobile Video Narratives in the Courtroom,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 20, 2017, pp. 335-350

Michael E. Burns, “Recruiting Prospective Students with Stories: How Personal Stories Influence the Process of Choosing a University,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 63, 2015, pp. 99-118.

Christopher T. Caldiero, “Crisis Storytelling: Fisher's Narrative Paradigm and News Reporting,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 9, 2007, available online at http://ac-journal.org/journal/2007/Spring/articles/storytelling.html

David Carless and Katrina Douglas, “‘In the Boat’ but ‘Selling Myself Short’: Stories, Narratives, and Identity Development in Elite Sport,” Sport Psychologist, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 27-39.

Kenneth D. Chestek, “Competing Stories: A Case Study of the Role of Narrative Reasoning in Judicial Decisions,” Legal Communication & Rhetoric: JALWD, 2012, pp. 99-137.

Eileen Hammond, “Lilly Ledbetter Teaches Us a Lesson: 2012 DNC Speech Gives Way to Public Moral Argument,” Florida Communication Journal, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 25-37.

Shari Hoppin, “Applying the Narrative Paradigm to the Vaccine Debates,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 45-55.

L. M. Lareau and Nathan Miczo, N. “Exploring the Relationship Between Online Health Information Seeking Motivations and Patient Narratives for Orthopedic Practice Web Sites,” Ohio Communication Journal, Vol. 55, 2017, pp. 131-145.

William R. Saltzman, Robert S. Pynoos, Patricia Lester, Christopher M. Layne, and William R. Beardslee, “Enhancing Family Resilience Through Family Narrative Co-Construction,” Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, Vol. 16, 2013, pp. 294-310.

Chapter 25—Media Ecology

For a broad and deep introduction to the field of media ecology, see Dennis D. Cali, Mapping Media Ecology: Introduction to the Field, Peter Lang, New York, 2017.

McLuhan fans may enjoy a book that he co-authored with his son:

Marshall McLuhan and Eric McLuhan, Laws of Media: The New Science, University of Toronto Press, 1988. 

A particularly scholarly treatment of the history of communication technology (in the tradition of Walter Ong) is Ronald J. Deibert, Parchment, Printing, and Hypermedia: Communication in World Order Transformation, University of Columbia Press, New York, 1997.

 

Theoretical considerations

Corey Anton, “‘Heating Up' and 'Cooling Down': Re-appraising McLuhan's Hot–Cool Distinction,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 343-348.

Dennis D. Cali, “The sacramental view of Marshall McLuhan, Walter Ong and James Carey,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 16, 2017, pp. 139-156.

Curry Chandler, “Marshall Arts: An Inventory of Common Criticisms of McLuhan’s Media Studies,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 10, 2012, pp. 279-293.

Eric Jenkins and Peter Zhang, “Deleuze the Media Ecologist? Extensions of and Advances on McLuhan,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 15, 2016, pp. 55-72.

John Durham Peters, “‘You Mean My Whole Fallacy Is Wrong’: On Technological Determinism,” Representations, Vol. 140, 2017, pp. 10-26.

Jonathan Sterne, “Media Analysis Beyond Content,” Journal of Visual Culture, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 100-103.

Laureano Ralón, “From Global Village to Global Theater: The Late McLuhan as a Philosopher of Difference, Sense, and Multiplicities,” Review of Communication, Vol. 17, 2017, pp. 303-319.

Lance Strate, “Understanding the Message of Understanding Media,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 25, 2017, pp. 244-254.

 

Applied contexts

Martin Hirst, “One Tweet Does Not a Revolution Make: Technological Determinism, Media and Social Change,” Global Media Journal: Australian Edition, Vol. 6, 2012, pp. 1-11.

Daniel R. McCarthy, “Technology and ‘the International’ or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Determinism,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 41, 2013, pp. 470-490.

Eric McLuhan and Peter Zhang, “Media Ecology in a Jazz Mode,” China Media Research, Vol. 13, 2017, pp. 57-69.

Eric McLuhan and Peter Zhang, “Media Ecology: Illuminations,” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 459-475.

Michael Plugh, “Global Village: Globalization Through a Media Ecology Lens,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 219-235.

 

Neil Postman

For other work by Neil Postman, see his provocative tirade Amusing Ourselves to Death (New York: Penguin, 1986), which seeks to expose the strong entertainment bias inherent in the technology of television.  

Charles Scott Rader, Roger Brooksbank, Zahed Subhan, Clinton D. Lanier, Jr., Daniel J. Flint, and Nadia Vorontsova, “Toward a Theory of Adoption of Mobile Technology Devices: An Ecological Shift in Life-Worlds,” Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 20, 2016, pp. 38-61.

Ellen Rose, “As Much Through Manner as Through Matter: The 'Postmanist' Approach to Social Research,” Explorations in Media Ecology, Vol. 13, 2014, pp. 37-47.

Niall P. Stephens, “Toward a More Substantive Media Ecology: Postman’s Metaphor Versus Posthuman Futures,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 8, 2014, pp. 2027-2045.

 

Chapter 26—Semiotics

An excellent supplementary text for this chapter is Jonathan Bignell, Media Semiotics: An Introduction, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, 1997. 

A good source for articles on semiotics is the American Journal of Semiotics

In the Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, see:

  • James S. Baumlin, “Barthes,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 66-67.
  • Sue Hum, “Semiotics,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, pp. 666-667.
  • Catherine Lappas, “Signified/Signifier/Signifying,” in Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, Theresa Enos (ed.), Routledge, New York, 1996, p. 673.

  

General discussion of semiotics

Mutlu Er, “The Active Role of the Recipient in Decoding an Advertisement Respectively a Poster,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 70, 2013, pp. 52-60.

Lucy O’Meara, “‘Whose Contemporary Am I?’: Recent Writing on Roland Barthes,” Paragraph, Vol. 39, 2016, pp. 369-378.

Susan Petrilli, The Self as a Sign, the World, and the Other: Living Semiotics, Routledge, New York, 2013.

Douglas Walter Scott, “Music as Semiotic Eigenbehavior,” Constructivist Foundations, Vol. 12, 2017, pp. 342-352.

 

Applications of Barthes

Grace E. Adamo, (2013). “An Analysis of Students’ Slang Terms for Academic Activities in a Nigerian University: A Semiotic Approach,” Southern African Linguistics & Applied Language Studies, Vol. 31, 2013, pp. 89-96.

Kawakib Al-Momani, Muhammad A. Badarneh, and Fathi Migdadi, “A Semiotic Analysis of Political Cartoons in Jordan in Light of the Arab Spring,” Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, Vol. 30, 2017, pp. 63-95.

B. R. Barricelli, D. Gadia, A. Rizzi, and D. L. R. Marini, “Semiotics of Virtual Reality as a Communication Process,” Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 35, 2016, pp. 879-896.

Cinzia Bianchi, “Semiotic Approaches to Advertising Texts and Strategies: Narrative, Passion, Marketing,” Semiotica, Issue 183, 2011, pp. 243-271.

Pat Brereton and Robert Furze, “Transcendence and The Tree of Life: Beyond the Face of the Screen with Terrence Malick, Emmanuel Levinas, and Roland Barthes,” Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture,” Vol. 8, 2014, pp. 329-351.

Justin D. Burton “From Barthes to Bart: The Simpsons vs. Amadeus,” Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 481-500.

Nicolas Adam Cambridge, “High Teas, High Collars and High Rise Buildings in a ‘High-Context’ Culture: The Semiotics of Japan's Project of Modernity,” Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 11-22.

Wendy Quinlan-Gagnon, “How Buildings Speak: Architecture and Ambiance in the Construction of Art Museum Discourses,” International Journal of the Inclusive Museum, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 47-61.

Chapter 27—Cultural Studies

  • For a critical perspective on Hall as a theorist and as a critic of cultural, see Chris Rojek, Stuart Hall, Blackwell, Malden, MA, 2003.
  • For a hypothesized next stage of cultural studies, see Scott Lash, “Power After Hegemony: Cultural Studies in Mutation?,” Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 55-78.
  • A more cautious (yet nonetheless sinister) critique of the economic realities behind the media is Ben H. Bagdikian, The New Media Monopoly, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 2004. The book links the intellectual decline of the American newspaper industry to inevitable economic pressures.  Bagdikian does not fit neatly into Hall’s camp, but his effort to demonstrate the ways in which the business decisions of the economic elite limit the diversity of news coverage falls into the larger category of economic determinism.
  • Another relevant read is Barbara Ehrenreich, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, Henry Holt, New York, 2001. Ehrenreich describes the experience of living on minimum wage in America.  While not strictly out of a cultural studies perspective, it provides a fascinating account of trying to work at the bottom of the hierarchy.  Her follow-up shows the grim side of the white-collar existence: Barbara Ehrenreich, Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream, Metropolitan Books, New York, 2005.
Additional sources about Hall

The Media Education Foundation distributes a video production of an accessible lecture by Stuart Hall entitled Stuart Hall: Representation and the Media  You can check it out at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTzMsPqssOY

Ien Ang, “Stuart Hall and the Tension Between Academic and Intellectual Work,” International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 19, 2016, pp. 29-41.

Gerard Goggin, “Media and Power After Stuart Hall,” Cultural Studies Review, 22, 2016, pp. 277-281.

Sut Jhally, “Stuart Hall: The last interview,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 332-345.

Sut Jhally, “Stuart Hall's Pessimism of the Intellect, Optimism of the Will: Reflections on an Intellectual Life,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 30, 2016, pp. 322-331.

Herbert Pimlott, “Stuart Hall’s Legacy: Thatcherism, Cultural Studies and ‘The Battle for Socialist Ideas’ During the 1980,” Socialist Studies, Vol. 12, 2017, pp. 117-133.

Hudson Vincent, “Space for Cultural Studies: Conversations with the Centre,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 27, 2013, pp. 666-686.

 

Cultural studies analyses

Jimmy Draper, “Theorizing Creative Agency Through ‘Discerned Savvy’: A Tool for the Critical Study of Media Industries,” Media, Culture, & Society, Vol. 36, 2014, pp. 1118-1133.

Jayson Harsin and Mark Hayward, “Stuart Hall's ‘Deconstructing the Popular’: Reconsiderations 30 Years Later,” Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 6, 2013, pp. 201-207.

Isabel Molina-Guzmán, “#OscarsSoWhite: How Stuart Hall Explains Why Nothing Changes in Hollywood and Everything is Changing,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 438-454.

Elspeth Probyn, “A Feminist Love Letter to Stuart Hall; or What Feminist Cultural Studies Needs to Remember,” Cultural Studies Review, Vol. 22, 2016, pp. 294-301.

Nelly Richard, “Humanities and Social Sciences in Critical Dialogues with Cultural Studies,” Cultural Studies, Vol. 26, 2012, pp. 166-177.

D. Travers Scott, “Reconciling Hall with Discourse, Written in the Shadows of ‘Confederate’ and Rainbow Flags,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 424-437.

Katherine Sender and Peter Decherney, “Stuart Hall Lives: Cultural Studies in an Age of Digital Media,” Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 381-384.

Handel Kashope Wright, “Stuart Hall’s Relevance for the Study of African Blackness,” International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 19, 2016, pp. 85-99.

 

Other teaching ideas

Catherine Driscoll, “Teaching Cultural Studies; Teaching Stuart Hall,” Cultural Studies Review, Vol. 22, 2016, pp. 269-276.

Chapter 28—Uses and Gratifications

Theoretical considersations

Sarah M. Coyne, Laura M. Padilla-Walker, and Emily Howard, “Emerging in a Digital World: A Decade Review of Media Use, Effects, and Gratifications in Emerging Adulthood,” Emerging Adulthood, Vol. 1, 2013, pp. 125-137.

Hui-Fei Lin and Chi-Hua Chen, “Combining the Technology Acceptance Model and Uses and Gratifications Theory to Examine the Usage Behavior of an Augmented Reality Tour-Sharing Application,” Symmetry, Vol. 9, 2017, pp. 1-22.

Jian Raymond Rui and Michael A. Stefanone, “The Desire for Fame: An Extension of Uses and Gratifications Theory,” Communication Studies, Vol. 67, 2016, pp. 399-418.

Jiyeon So, “Uses, Gratifications, and Beyond: Toward a Model of Motivated Media Exposure and Its Effects on Risk Perception,” Communication Theory, Vol. 22, 2012, pp. 116-137.

 

Applied contexts (general)

Kristin M. Barton, “Why We Watch Them Sing and Dance: The Uses and Gratifications of Talent-Based Reality Television,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 61, 2013, pp. 217-235.

Bela Florenthal, “Applying Uses and Gratifications Theory to Students’ LinkedIn Usage,” Young Consumers, Vol. 16, 2015, pp. 17-35.

Amanda Jo Ratcliff, Josh McCarty, and Matt Ritter, “Religion and New Media: A Uses and Gratifications Approach,” Journal of Media and Religion, Vol. 16, 2017, pp. 15-26.

 

Social media use

Amandeep Dhir, Gina M. Chen, and Sufen Chen, “Why Do We Tag Photographs on Facebook? Proposing a New Gratifications Scale,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 502-521.

Amber L. Ferris and Erin E. Hollenbaugh, “A Uses and Gratifications Approach to Exploring Antecedents to Facebook Dependency,” Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 62, 2018, pp. 51-70.

Rachel Grieve, “Unpacking the Characteristics of Snapchat Users: A Preliminary Investigation and an Agenda for Future Research,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 74, 2017, pp. 130-138.

Joe Phua, Seunga Venus Jin, and Jihoon (Jay) Kim, “Uses and Gratifications of Social Networking Sites for Bridging and Bonding Social Capital: A Comparison of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 72, 2017, pp. 115-122.

Pavica Sheldon and Katherine Bryant, “Instagram: Motives for Its Use and Relationship to Narcissism and Contextual Age,” Computers In Human Behavior, Vol. 58, 2016, pp. 89-97.

Erin Willis and Patrick Ferrucci, “Mourning and Grief on Facebook: An Examination of Motivations for Interacting With the Deceased,” OMEGA: The Journal Of Death And Dying, Vol. 76, 2017, pp. 122-140.

 

Uses & grats in sports

Adam C. Earnheardt and Paul M. Haridakis, “Exploring Fandom and Motives for Viewing Television Sports,” in Sports Mania: Essays on Fandom and the Media in the 21st Century, Lawrence W. Hugenberg, Paul M. Haridakis, and Adam C. Earnheardt (eds.), McFarland, Jefferson, NC, 2008, pp. 158-171. 

Evan L. Frederick, Choong Hoon, Lim, Galen Clavio, and Patrick Walsh, “Why We Follow: An Examination of Parasocial Interaction and Fan Motivations for Following Athlete Archetypes on Twitter,” International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 5, 2012, pp. 481-502.

Seok Kang, “Mobile Communication and Pro Sports: Motivation and Fan Loyalty,” International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 15, 2017, pp. 604-627.

Joon K. Kim and Kevin Hull, “How Fans are Engaging with Baseball Teams Demonstrating Multiple Objectives on Instagram,” Sport, Business And Management: An International Journal, Vol. 7, 2017, pp. 216-232.

Craig A. Morehead, Brendan O'Hallarn, and Stephen L. Shapiro, “Tell Me How You Really Feel: Analyzing Debate, Desire, and Disinhibition in Online Sports News Stories,” International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 13-35.

John S. W. Spinda, “From Good Ol' Boys to National Spectacle: Motives and Identification Among Young NASCAR Fans,” in Sports Fans, Identity, and Socialization: Exploring the Fandemonium, Adam C. Earnheardt, Paul M. Haridakis, and Barbara S. Hugenberg (eds.), Lexington Books, Lanham, MD, 2012, pp. 177-189.

 

Online gaming

Christopher J. Ferguson, Benjamin Trigani, Steven Pilato, Stephanie Miller, Kimberly Foley, and Hayley Barr, “Violent Video Games Don’t Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out,” Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol. 87, 2016, pp. 49-56.

Taozhen Huang, Zheshi Bao, and Yan Li, “Why Do Players Purchase in Mobile Social Network Games? An Examination of Customer Engagement and of Uses and Gratifications Theory,” Program, Vol. 51, 2017, pp. 259-277.

 

Other online media

Chunmei Gan and Hongxiu Li, “Understanding the Effects of Gratifications on the Continuance Intention to Use WeChat in China: A Perspective on Uses and Gratifications,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 78, 2018, pp. 306-315.

Barbara K. Kaye, “Going to the Blogs: Toward the Development of a Uses and Gratifications Measurement Scale for Blogs,” Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 18, 2010, pp. 194-210.

Fang-Yi Flora Wei and Y. Ken Wang, “Students’ Silent Messages: Can Teacher Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy Moderate Student Use of Text Messaging in Class?,” Communication Education, Vol. 59, 2010, pp. 475-496.

 

Politics and civic life

Gary Hanson, Paul Michael Haridakis, Audrey Wagstaff Cunningham, Rekha Sharma, and J. D. Ponder, “The 2008 Presidential Campaign: Political Cynicism in the Age of Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 13, 2010, pp. 584-607.

 

Chapter 29—Cultivation Theory

Ellen Wartella takes up the issue of television violence in her 1996 Carroll Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “The Context of Television Violence,” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1997 (as of this writing, a copy is available at http://www1.udel.edu/comm245/readings/tvviolence.pdf) as does James T. Hamilton, Channeling Violence: The Economic Market for Violent Television Programming, Princeton University Press, 1998. 

Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research dedicated its September 2004 (Vol. 29, Issue 3, Jan Van den Bulck, ed.) special issue to then-current developments in cultivation research.

Theoretical considerations

Kimberly Gross and Sean Aday, “The Scary World in Your Living Room and Neighborhood: Using Local Broadcast News, Neighborhood Crime Rates, and Personal Experience to Test Agenda Setting and Cultivation,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 53, 2003, pp. 411-426.

Michael Morgan, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Yesterday's New Cultivation, Tomorrow,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 674-699.

Michael Morgan and James Shanahan, “The State of Cultivation,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 54, 2010, pp. 337-355.

Karyn Riddle, “Remembering Past Media Use: Toward the Development of a Lifetime Television Exposure Scale,” Communication Methods & Measures, Vol. 4, 2010, pp. 241-255.

Karyn Riddle, W. James Potter, Miriam J. Metzger, Robin L. Nabi, and Daniel G. Linz, “Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media,” Media Psychology, Vol. 14, 2011, pp. 168-191.

Anna Schnauber and Christine E. Meltzer, “On the Distinction and Interrelation Between First- and Second-Order Judgments in Cultivation Research,” Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2016, pp. 121-143.

 

Critiques and contrasting opinions of cultivation theory

Markus Appel, “Fictional Narratives Cultivate Just-World Beliefs,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 58, 2008, pp. 62-83.

Lennert Coenen and Jan Van den Bulck, “Cultivating the Opinionated: The Need to Evaluate Moderates the Relationship Between Crime Drama Viewing and Scary World Evaluations,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 421-440.

W. James Potter, “A Critical Analysis of Cultivation Theory,” Journal of Communication, 64, 2014, pp. 1015-1036.

 

Cultivation and news coverage

John W. Cheng, Hitoshi Mitomo, Tokio Otsuka, and Stefan Y. Jeon, “Cultivation Effects of Mass and Social Media on Perceptions and Behavioural Intentions in Post-Disaster Recovery – The Case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake,” Telematics & Informatics, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 753-772.

Zeeba Khan and Jon Bruschke, “Media Coverage of Muslims, Perceived Threats, Ethnocentrism, and Intercultural Contact: Applying Cultivation Theory, Integrated Threat Theory, and the Contact Hypothesis,” Northwest Journal of Communication, Vol. 44, 2016, pp. 7-34.

Sean Patrick Roche, Justin T. Pickett, and Marc Gertz, “The Scary World of Online News? Internet News Exposure and Public Attitudes Toward Crime and Justice,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Vol. 32, 2016, pp. 215-236.

 

Violence

John R. Chapin and Grace Coleman, “Optimistic Bias About Dating/Relationship Violence Among Teens,” Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 645-655.

Kathleen Custers and Jan Van den Bulck, “The Cultivation of Fear of Sexual Violence in Women: Processes and Moderators of the Relationship Between Television and Fear,” Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2013, pp. 96-124.

LeeAnn Kahlor and Matthew S. Eastin, “Television's Role in the Culture of Violence Toward Women: A Study of Television Viewing and the Cultivation of Rape Myth Acceptance in the United States,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 55, 2011, pp. 215-231.

 

Video Games

Yew Mun Gabriel Chong, Kie Zin Scott Teng, Sok Cheng Amy Siew, and Marko M. Skoric, “Cultivation Effects of Video Games: A Longer-Term Experimental Test of First- and Second-Order Effects,” Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol. 31, 2012, pp. 952-971.

Dmitri Williams, “Virtual Cultivation: Online Worlds, Offline Perceptions,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 56, 2006, pp. 69-87.

 

Sex and gender role cultivation

Dawn Elizabeth England, Lara Descartes, and Melissa A. Collier-Meek, “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses,” Sex Roles, Vol. 64, 2011, pp. 555-567.

Hilary Gamble and Leslie R. Nelson, “Sex in College Relationships: The Role Television Plays in Emerging Adults’ Sexual Expectations in Relationships,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 83, 2016, pp. 145-161.

Ashton Gerding and Nancy Signorielli, “Gender Roles in Tween Television Programming: A Content Analysis of Two Genres,” Sex Roles, Vol. 70, 2014, pp. 43-56.

Scott Parrott and Caroline Titcomb Parrott, “U.S. Television’s ‘Mean World’ for White Women: The Portrayal of Gender and Race on Fictional Crime Dramas,” Sex Roles, Vol. 73, 2015, pp. 70-82. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Is Reality TV a Bad Girls Club? Television Use, Docusoap Reality Television Viewing, and the Cultivation of the Approval of Aggression,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 95, 2018, pp. 235-257. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Cultivating Conceptions of Masculinity: Television and Perceptions of Masculine Gender Role Norms,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 21, 2018, pp. 149-177.

Kristen E. Van Vonderen and William Kinnally, “Media Effects on Body Image: Examining Media Exposure in the Broader Context of Internal and Other Social Factors,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 14, 2012, pp. 41-57.

  

Other applied contexts

Kathleen Beullens, Keith Roe, and Jan Van den Bulck, “Music Video Viewing as a Marker of Driving After the Consumption of Alcohol,” Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 47, 2012, pp. 155-165.

Bumsub Jin and Seongjung Jeong, “The Impact of Korean Television Drama Viewership on the Social Perceptions of Single Life and Having Fewer Children in Married Life,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 20, 2010, pp. 17-32.

Jae Eun Chung, “Medical Dramas and Viewer Perception of Health: Testing Cultivation Effects,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2014, pp. 333-349.

Jon Hammermeister, Barbara Brock, David Winterstein, and Randy Page, “Life Without TV? Cultivation Theory and Psychosocial Health Characteristics of Television-Free Individuals and Their Television-Viewing Counterparts,” Health Communication, Vol. 17, 2005, pp. 253-264.

Amir Hetsroni and Hila Lowenstein, “Cultivation and Counter Cultivation: Does Religiosity Shape the Relationship Between Television Viewing and Estimates of Crime Prevalence and Assessment of Victimization Likelihood?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 112, 2013, pp. 303-324.

Amir Hetsroni, Abira Reizer, and Uri Ben Zion, “Interest Rate Demands and Television Viewing--Is a Single Exposure More Influential Than Routine Viewing?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 120, 2017, pp. 332-360.

Mina Tsay-Vogel, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Social Media Cultivating Perceptions of Privacy: A 5-Year Analysis of Privacy Attitudes and Self-Disclosure Behaviors Among Facebook Users,” New Media & Society, Vol. 20, 2018, pp. 141-161.

 

Teaching ideas

Elizabeth Ribarsky, “The Frankenstein Project: Examining Media's Role in Constructing Romantic Relationship Ideals,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 160-164.

Chapter 30—Agenda-Setting Theory

One of the most famous political statements about the agenda-setting function of the media is Spiro Agnew’s “Television News Coverage” speech (transcript of the speech is available online at http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/spiroagnewtvnewscoverage.htm).  Focusing on recent news coverage of Nixon’s handling of the war in Indochina, the Vice President argued that the liberal media elite unfairly influence both what Americans think about (agenda-setting) and how they think about it (framing).  Somewhat ironically, Agnew’s successful attack on the press’s power demonstrated a very different point—the ability of politicians and their spin doctors to use media outlets to shape public opinion. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Amélie Godefroidt, Anna Berbers, and Leen d’Haenens, “What’s in a Frame? A Comparative Content Analysis of American, British, French, and Russian News Articles,” International Communication Gazette, Vol. 78, 2016, pp. 777-801.

Leo W. Jeffres, “Mass Communication Theories in a Time of Changing Technologies,” Mass Communication and Society, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 523-530.

Amie Kreppel and Buket Oztas, “Leading the Band or Just Playing the Tune? Reassessing the Agenda-Setting Powers of the European Commission,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 50, 2017, pp. 1118-1150.

Lei Guo, Hong Tien Vu, and Maxwell McCombs, “An Expanded Perspective on Agenda-Setting Effects: Exploring the Third Level of Agenda Setting,” Revista de Comunicación, 2012, pp. 1151-68.

Maxwell E. McCombs, Donald L. Shaw, and David H. Weaver, “New Directions in Agenda-Setting Theory and Research,” Mass Communication and Society,Vol. 17, 2014, pp. 781-802.

W. Russell Neuman, Lauren Guggenheim, S. Mo Jang, and Soo Young Bae, “The Dynamics of Public Attention: Agenda-Setting Theory Meets Big Data,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 64, 2014, pp. 193-214.

Joaquín Trigueros and Ivan Lacasa-Mas, “Colloquy with Maxwell McCombs at the University of Texas at Austin: Agenda Setting, a Limitless Theory in a Connected World,” Church, Communication and Culture, Vol. 3, 2018, pp. 53-74.

Chris J. Vargo and Lei Guo, L. “Networks, Big Data, and Intermedia Agenda Setting: An Analysis of Traditional, Partisan, and Emerging Online U.S. News,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 94, 2017, pp. 1031-1055.

Hong Tien Vu, Lei Guo, and Maxwell E. McCombs, “Exploring ‘the World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads’: A Network Agenda-Setting Study,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 91, 2014, pp. 669-686.

 

The media’s gatekeeping function

Bruce A. Williams and Michael X. Delli Carpini, “Monica and Bill All the Time and Everywhere: The Collapse of Gatekeeping and Agenda-Setting in the New Media Environment,” American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 47, 2004, pp. 1208-1230.

Monika Djerf-Pierre and Adam Shehata, “Still an Agenda Setter: Traditional News Media and Public Opinion During the Transition From Low to High Choice Media Environments,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 67, 2017, pp. 733-757.

Alexander Fouirnaies, “When Are Agenda Setters Valuable?,” American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 62, 2018, pp. 176-191.

Mark Lee Hunter, Luk N. Van Wassenhove, Maria Besiou, and Mignon van Halderen, “The Agenda-Setting Power of Stakeholder Media,” California Management Review, Vol. 56, 2013, pp. 24-49.

Kathleen Searles and Glen Smith, “Who's the Boss? Setting the Agenda in a Fragmented Media Environment,” International Journal of Communication, Vol. 10, 2016, pp. 2074-2095.

 

Agenda-setting in sports

James R. Angelini and Andrew C. Billings, A. C. “An Agenda That Sets the Frames: Gender, Language, and NBC's Americanized Olympic Telecast,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 29, 2010, pp. 363-385.

Ari Kim, Moonhoon Choi, and Kyriaki Kaplanidou, “The Role of Media in Enhancing People's Perception of Hosting a Mega Sport Event: The Case of Pyeongchang's Winter Olympics Bids,” International Journal of Sport Communication, Vol. 8, 2015, pp. 68-86.

Laureen M. Burch, Evan L. Frederick, Matthew H. Zimmerman, and Galen E. Clavio, “Agenda-Setting and La Copa Mundial: Marketing Through Agenda-Setting on Soccer Blogs During the 2010 World Cup,” International Journal of Sport Management & Marketing, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 213-231.

Andrea Eagleman, Lauren M. Burch, and Ryan Vooris, “A Unified Version of London 2012: New-Media Coverage of Gender, Nationality, and Sport for Olympics Consumers in Six Countries,” Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 457-470.

John A. Fortunato, “Agenda-Setting Through the Television Programming Schedule: An Examination of Major League Baseball on Fox,” JMM: The International Journal on Media Management, Vol. 18, 2016, pp. 163-180.

Kevin Hull and Annelie Schmittel, “A Fumbled Opportunity? A Case Study of Twitter’s Role in Concussion Awareness Opportunities During the Super Bowl,” Journal of Sport and Social Issues, Vol. 39, 2015, pp. 78-94.

Matthew H. Zimmerman, Galen E. Clavio, and Choong Hoon Lim, “Set the Agenda Like Beckham: A Professional Sports League's Use of YouTube to Disseminate Messages to Its Users,” International Journal of Sport Management & Marketing, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 180-195.

 

Agenda-setting in politics

Lei Guo, Yi-Ning Katherine Chen, Hong Vu, Qian Wang, Radoslaw Aksamit, Damian Guzek, Marek Jachimowski, and Maxwell McCombs, “Coverage of the Iraq War in the United States, Mainland China, Taiwan and Poland: A Transnational Network Agenda-Setting Study,” Journalism Studies, Vol. 16, 2015, pp. 343-362.

Ashley Muddiman, Natalie Jomini Stroud, and Maxwell McCombs, “Media Fragmentation, Attribute Agenda Setting, and Political Opinions About Iraq,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 58, 2014, pp. 215-233.

Kathleen Raso and Robert J. Neubauer, R. J. “Managing Dissent: Energy Pipelines and ‘New Right’ Politics in Canada,” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 41, 2016, pp. 115-133.

Donald L. Shaw, Thomas C. Terry, and Milad Minooie, “Military Communication Strategies Based on How Audiences Meld Media and Agendas,” Military Review, Vol. 95, 2015, pp. 16-28.

Daphne van der Pas, “Making Hay While the Sun Shines: Do Parties Only Respond to Media Attention When the Framing Is Right?,” International Journal of Press/Politics, Vol. 19, 2014, pp. 42-65.

Chris J. Vargo, Lei Guo, Maxwell McCombs, and Donald L. Shaw, “Network Issue Agendas on Twitter During the 2012 U.S. Presidential Election,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 64, 2014, pp. 296-316.

Michelle Wolfe, Bryan D. Jones, and Frank R. Baumgartner, “A Failure to Communicate: Agenda Setting in Media and Policy Studies,” Political Communication, Vol. 30, 2013, pp. 175-192.

 

Other applied contexts

Helen Dixon, Charles Warne, Maree Scully, Suzanne Dobbinson, and Melanie Wakefield, “Agenda-Setting Effects of Sun-Related News Coverage on Public Attitudes and Beliefs About Tanning and Skin Cancer,” Health Communication, Vol. 29, 2014, pp. 173-181.

Jiyoon (Karen) Han, Seungae Lee, and Maxwell McCombs, “The Attribute Agenda-Setting Influence of Online Community on Online Newscast: Investigating the South Korean Sewol Ferry Tragedy,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 27, 2017, pp. 601-615.

Pavlos C. Symeou, Philemon Bantimaroudis, and Stelios C. Zyglidopoulos, “Cultural Agenda Setting and the Role of Critics: An Empirical Examination in the Market for Art-House Films,” Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2015, pp. 732-754.

Larissa Terán and Tara M. Emmers-Sommer, “‘The Destruction of a Legacy’: Agenda Setting and the Bill Cosby Sexual Assault Allegations,” Sexuality & Culture, Vol. 22, 2018, pp. 63-89.

Chapter 31—Genderlect Styles

A good general collection of essays on related issues is Linda A. M. Perry, Lynn H. Turner, and Helen M. Sterk (eds.), Constructing and Reconstructing Gender: The Links Among Communication, Language, and Gender, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1992.  Particularly relevant is Nancy Hoar’s piece, “Genderlect, Powerlect, and Politeness” (pp. 127-36). 

William Rawlins’ books have much of interest to say about the ways males and females communicate with their friends and romantic partners.

  • William K. Rawlins, Friendship Matters: Communication, Dialectics, and the Life Course, Routledge, New York, 1992.
  • William K. Rawlins, The Compass of Friendship: Narratives, Identities, and Dialogues, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2009. 

For a critical assessment of the male genderlect, see Peter F. Murphy, Studs, Tools, and the Family Jewels: Metaphors Men Live By, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 2001.

 

Other texts by Tannen

Deborah Tannen (ed.), Framing and Discourse, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Deborah Tannen (ed.), Gender and Conversational Interaction, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

Her books on families include:

  • Deborah Tannen, You Were Always Mom’s Favorite!: Sisters in Conversation Throughout Their Lives, Random House, New York, 2009.
  • Deborah Tannen, You’re Wearing THAT?: Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation, Random House, New York, 2006.
  • Deborah Tannen, I Only Say This Because I Love You: How The Way We Talk Can Make or Break Family Relationships Throughout Our Lives, Random House, New York, 2001.

She addresses women’s friendships in You’re the Only One I Can Tell: Inside the Language of Women’s Friendships, Ballantine Books, New York, 2017.

Women and men’s workplace relationships are the subject of her book Talking From 9 to 5: Women and Men at Work, Avon Books, 1995.

You may wish to check out her work The Argument Culture: Stopping America’s War of Words, Ballantine Books, New York, 1999.  Although probably misnamed—Tannen is not really against argument when it is conducted rationally, fairly, and productively—it takes on the discourse of contentiousness that may be too prevalent in our society. 

 

Critiques of Tannen

An attack on Tannen’s genderlect theory in You Just Don’t Understand appears in Daena J. Goldsmith and Patricia A. Fulfs, “‘You Just Don’t Have the Evidence’: An Analysis of Claims and Evidence in Deborah Tannen’s You Just Don’t Understand,Annals of the International Communication Association, Vol. 22, 1999, pp. 1-49. 

 

Theoretical considerations

Kathryn Heath, Jill Flynn, and Mary Davis Holt, “Women, Find Your Voice,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 92, 2014, pp. 118-121.

Anthony Mulac, James J. Bradac, and Pamela Gibbons, ”Empirical Support for the Gender-as-Culture Hypothesis: An Intercultural Analysis of Male/Female Language Differences,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 27, 2001, pp. 121-152.

Anthony Mulac, Howard Giles, James J. Bradac, and Nicholas A. Palomares, ”The Gender-Linked Language Effect: An Empirical Test of a General Process Model,” Language Sciences, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 22-31.

Deborah Tannen, “The Medium Is the Metamessage: Conversational Style in New Media Interaction,” In Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media, Deborah Tannen and Anna Marie Trester (eds.), Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC, 2013, pp. 99-118.

Christopher J. Zahn, “The Bases for Differing Evaluations of Male and Female Speech: Evidence from Ratings of Transcribed Conversation,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 56, 1989, pp. 59-74.

 

Language differences

Patricia Easteal, Lorana Bartels, and Sally Bradford, “Language, Gender and ‘Reality’: Violence Against Women,” International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, Vol. 40, 2012, pp. 324-337.

Albert N. Katz and Jonathan A. R. Woodbury, “Gender Differences in Being Thanked for Performing a Favor,” Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Vol. 46, 2017, pp. 481-496.

Malka Muchnik and Anat Stavans, “Telling the Same Story to Your Child: Mothers' versus Fathers' Storytelling Interactions,” Women & Language, Vol. 32, 2009, pp. 60-69.

Dhiraj Murthy, Sawyer Bowman, Alexander J. Gross, and Marisa McGarry, “Do We Tweet Differently From Our Mobile Devices? A Study of Language Differences on Mobile and Web-Based Twitter Platforms,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2015, pp. 816-837.

Felicia Roberts and Alda Norris, “Gendered Expectations for ‘Agreeableness’ in Response to Requests and Opinions,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 16-23.

 

Applied contexts

Nina Haferkamp, Sabrina C. Eimler, Anna-Margarita Papadakis, and Jana Vanessa Kruck, “Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus? Examining Gender Differences in Self-Presentation on Social Networking Sites,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 91-98.

Rose Helens-Hart, “Females’ (Non)Disclosure of Minority Sexual Identities in the Workplace From a Communication Privacy Management Perspective,” Communication Studies, Vol. 68, 2017, pp. 607-623.

Kent Kaiser, “Sports Reporters in the Twittersphere: Challenging and Breaking Down Traditional Conceptualizations of Genderlect,” Online Information Review, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 761-784.

Roxana D. Maiorescu, “Crisis Management at General Motors and Toyota: An Analysis of Gender-Specific Communication and Media Coverage,” Public Relations Review, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 556-563.

Carey Noland, “‘Macho Men Don't Communicate’: The Role of Communication in HIV Prevention,” Journal of Men's Studies, Vol. 16, 2008, pp. 18-31.

Philip Sullivan, “Communication Differences Between Male and Female Team Sport Athletes,” Communication Reports, Vol. 17, 2004, pp. 121-128.

Chapter 32—Standpoint Theory

Standpoint theoretical considerations

For a general assessment of standpoint theory and a discussion and application of its relevance to rhetorical studies, see Glen McClish and Jacqueline Bacon, “‘Telling the Story Her Own Way’: The Role of Feminist Standpoint Theory in Rhetorical Studies,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Vol.32, 2002, pp. 27-55.

Dilmi Aluwihare-Samaranayake, “Ethics in Qualitative Research: A View of the Participants’ and Researchers’ World from a Critical Standpoint,” International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 11, 2012, pp. 64-81.

Aimee-Marie Dorsten, “‘Thinking Dirty’: Digging Up Three Founding ‘Matriarchs’ of Communication Studies,” Communication Theory, Vol. 22, 2012, pp. 25-47.

Catherine E. Harnois, “Race, Gender, and the Black Women's Standpoint,” Sociological Forum, Vol. 25, 2010, pp. 68-85.

 

Standpoints of African-American women

For critiques of white feminists’ viewpoints by African-American women scholars and discussion of the ways in which racial and gender identities intersect in their lives, see:

  • bell hooks, Ain’t I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism, South End Press, Boston, 1981.
  • bell hooks’ essays “Reflections on Race and Sex” and “Representations: Feminism and Black Masculinity” in her collection Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics, South End Press, Boston, 1990.
  • Audre Lorde’s piece “The Master’s Tools Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House” (p. 110-113) in her collection Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches, Crossing Press, Freedom, CA, 1984.
  • Wendy Leo Moore, “Reflexivity, Power, and Systemic Racism,” Ethnic & Racial Studies, Vol. 35, 2012, pp. 614-619.

 

Interpersonal and family contexts

Shereen G. Bingham, Kerry L. Beldin, and Laura Dendinger, “Mediator and Survivor Perspectives on Screening for Intimate Partner Abuse,” Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2014, pp. 305-330.

Alexis C. Dennis and Julia T. Wood, “‘We're Not Going to Have This Conversation, But You Get It’: Black Mother–Daughter Communication About Sexual Relations,” Women's Studies in Communication, Vol. 35, 2012, pp. 204-223.

Sarah J. Mahler, Mayurakshi Chaudhuri, and Vrushali Patil, “Scaling Intersectionality: Advancing Feminist Analysis of Transnational Families,” Sex Roles, Vol. 73, 2015, pp. 100-112.

Andrea L. Tyler and Lameesa Muhammad, “Race, Gender, and Single Parenting: Dismantling the 'Invisible' Myth Around Intellectual Black Female Scholars,” in Autoethnography as a Lighthouse: Illuminating Race, Research, and the Politics of Schooling, in Stephen D. Hancock, Ayana Allen, and Chance W. Lewis, (eds.), Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, 2015, pp. 83-101.

 

News and Journalism

José Andrés Araiza, “Saying Goodbye to Men: Southern Feminists Publishing News While Challenging Patriarchy,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 38, 2014, pp. 273-290.

Marian Meyers and Lynne Gayle, “African American Women in the Newsroom: Encoding Resistance,” Howard Journal of Communications, Vol. 26, 2015, pp. 292-312.

 

Standpoint in the digital age

Sarah J. Jackson and Sonia Banaszczyk, “Digital Standpoints: Debating Gendered Violence and Racial Exclusions in the Feminist Counterpublic,” Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 391-407.

Kimberly A. Scott and Mary Aleta White, “COMPUGIRLS' Standpoint: Culturally Responsive Computing and Its Effect on Girls of Color,” Urban Education, Vol. 48, 2013, pp. 657-681.

Robin Stevens, Stacia Gilliard-Matthews, Jamie Dunaev, Marcus K. Woods, and Bridgette M. Brawner, “The Digital Hood: Social Media Use Among Youth in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 950-967.

 

In sports arenas

Helen Jefferson Lenskyj, “Reflections on Communication and Sport: On Heteronormativity and Gender Identities,” Communication and Sport, Vol. 1, 2013, pp. 138-150.

Brian K. Richardson and Joseph McGlynn, “Rabid Fans, Death Threats, and Dysfunctional Stakeholders: The Influence of Organizational and Industry Contexts on Whistle-Blowing Cases,” Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 25, 2011, pp. 121-150.

Nefertiti A. Walker and E. Nicole Melton, “The Tipping Point: The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Intercollegiate Sports,” Journal of Sport Management, Vol. 29, 2015, pp. 257-271.

 

Teaching idea

Donna R. Pawlowski, (2006). “Who Am I and Where Do I ‘Stand?’,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 20, 2006, pp. 69-73.

 

Other applied Contexts

Deborah Ballard-Reisch, “Muted Groups in Health Communication Policy and Practice: The Case of Older Adults in Rural and Frontier Areas,” Women & Language, Vol. 33, 2010, pp. 87-93.

Patrice M. Buzzanell, Robyn V. Remke, Rebecca Meisenbach, Meina Liu, Venssa Bowers, and Cindy Conn, “Standpoints of Maternity Leave: Discourses of Temporality and Ability,” Women's Studies in Communication, Vol. 40, 2017, pp. 67-90.

Kate Lockwood Harris, “Re-Situating Organizational Knowledge: Violence, Intersectionality and the Privilege of Partial Perspective,” Human Relations, Vol. 70, 2017, pp. 263-285.

Aileen Moreton-Robinson, “Towards an Australian Indigenous Women's Standpoint Theory,” Australian Feminist Studies, Vol. 28, 2013, pp. 331-347.

Sarah Mosedale, “Women's Empowerment as a Development Goal: Taking a Feminist Standpoint,” Journal of International Development, Vol. 26, 2014, pp. 1115-1125.

Alison Wylie, “Feminist Philosophy of Science: Standpoint Matters,” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, Vol. 86, 2012, pp. 47-76.

Chapter 33—Muted Group Theory

One of the great fictional example of women as a muted group is Margaret Atwood’s dystopian novel The Handmaid’s Tale, Fawcett Crest, New York, 1986, which is also available as a 1990 film and, in 2017, was released as a streaming TV series on Hulu. 

For discussion of gender-specific language, see Julia T. Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture,11th ed., Wadsworth, Boston, 2014.

 

Theoretical considerations

Cheris Kramarae, “Muted Group Theory and Communication: Asking Dangerous Questions,” Women & Language, Vol. 28, 2005, pp. 55-61.

Julia T. Wood, “Feminist Standpoint Theory and Muted Group Theory: Commonalities and Divergences,” Women & Language, Vol. 28, 2005, pp. 61-64.

 

Sexual harassment & violence

Ann Burnett,Jody L. Mattern, Liliana L. Herakova, David H. Kahl Jr., Cloy Tobola, and Susan E. Bornsen, “Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus,” Journal of Applied Communication Research, Vol. 37, 2009, pp. 465-485.

Patricia Easteal, Kate Holland, Keziah Judd, “Enduring Themes and Silences in Media Portrayals of Violence Against Women,” Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 48, 2015, pp. 103-113.

 

Online & digital contexts

Jesse Fox and Wai Yen Tang, “Women’s Experiences with General and Sexual Harassment in Online Video Games: Rumination, Organizational Responsiveness, Withdrawal, and Coping Strategies,” New Media & Society, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 1290-1307.

Melonie Fullick, “‘Gendering’ the Self in Online Dating Discourse,” Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 38, 2013, pp. 545-562.

Judith Hoover, Sally Hastings, and George Musambira, “‘Opening a Gap’ in Culture: Women's Uses of the Compassionate Friends Website,” Women & Language, Vol. 32, 2009, pp. 82-90.

Kent Kaiser, “Sports Reporters in the Twittersphere: Challenging and Breaking Down Traditional Conceptualizations of Genderlect,” Online Information Review, Vol. 40, 2016, pp. 761-784.

Jenny Ungbha Korn, J. U. (2016). “‘Genderless’ Online Discourse in the 1970s: Muted Group Theory in Early Social Computing,” in Ada's Legacy: Cultures of Computing from the Victorian to the Digital Age, Robin Hammerman and Andrew L. Russell (eds.), 2016, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, Williston, VT, pp. 213-229.

 

Politics

Jennifer J. Jones, “Talk ‘Like a Man’: The Linguistic Styles of Hillary Clinton, 1992–2013,” Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 14, 2016, pp. 625-642.

Tetyana Lokot, “#IAmNotAfraidToSayIt: Stories of Sexual Violence as Everyday Political Speech on Facebook,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 21, 2018, pp. 802-817.

 

Language, humor and sexist jokes

Robyn K. Mallett, Thomas E. Ford, and Julie A. Woodzicka, “What Did He Mean By That? Humor Decreases Attributions of Sexism and Confrontation of Sexist Jokes,” Sex Roles, Vol. 75, 2016, 272-284.

Keri Matwick and Kelsi Matwick, “Self-Deprecatory Humor on TV Cooking Shows,” Language & Communication, Vol. 56, 2017, pp. 33-41.

Nalyn Sriwattanakomen, “Who's Laughing Now? The Effects of Sexist and Rape Humor,” Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, Vol. 22, 2017, pp. 85-97.

 

Other applied contexts

Katherine Grace Hendrix and Cicely Wilson, “Virtual Invisibility: Race and Communication Education,” Communication Education, Vol. 63, 2014, pp. 405-428.

Jamie L. Huber, “Singing It Out: Riot Grrrls, Lilith Fair, and Feminism,” Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research, Vol. 9, 2010, pp. 965-985.

Christopher John Hunt and Karen Gonsalkorale, “Who Cares What She Thinks, What Does He Say? Links Between Masculinity, In-Group Bonding and Gender Harassment,” Sex Roles, Vol. 70, 2014, pp. 14-27.

Kissack, H. (2010). “Muted Voices: A Critical Look at E-Male in Organizations,” Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 34, 2010, pp. 539-551.

Louise North, “Damaging and Daunting: Female Journalists’ Experiences of Sexual Harassment in the Newsroom,” Feminist Media Studies, Vol. 16, 2016, pp. 495-510.

Jacob Roecker, Nathan Fuchs, Joanne Cook, Marie Crookston, and Dana Henderson, “Both Sides Now: A Bona Fide Group Perspective of Families and Divorce Mediation,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 10, 2008, available online at http://ac-journal.org/journal/2008/Summer/3BothSidesNow.pdf

Jimmy Sanderson, Melinda Weathers, Katherine Snedaker, and Kelly Gramlich, “‘I Was Able to Still Do My Job on the Field and Keep Playing’: An Investigation of Female and Male Athletes’ Experiences With (Not) Reporting Concussions,” Communication and Sport, Vol. 5, 2017, pp. 267-287.

Chapter 34—Communication Accommodation Theory

Theoretical considerations

Margaret J. Pitts and Jake Harwood, “Communication Accommodation Competence: The Nature and Nurture of Accommodative Resources Across the Lifespan,” Language & Communication, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 89-99.

Ronald E. Rice and Howard Giles, “The Contexts and Dynamics of Science Communication and Language,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 36, 2017, pp. 127-139.

Catalina L. Toma, “Towards Conceptual Convergence: An Examination of Interpersonal Adaptation,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 62, 2014, pp. 155-178.

 

Healthcare

Rukhsana Ahmed and Benjamin R. Bates, “To Accommodate, or Not to Accommodate: Exploring Patient Satisfaction with Doctors’ Accommodative Behavior During the Clinical Encounter,” Journal of Communications in Healthcare, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 22-32.

Lindsey B. Anderson and Melanie Morgan, “An Examination of Nurses’ Intergenerational Communicative Experiences in the Workplace: Do Nurses Eat Their Young?,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 65, 2017, pp. 377-401.

Susan C. Baker and Bernadette M. Watson, “How Patients Perceive Their Doctors’ Communication: Implications for Patient Willingness to Communicate,” Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 34, 2015, pp. 621-639.

Christopher Hajek, Melinda Villagran, and Elaine Wittenberg-Lyles, “The Relationships Among Perceived Physician Accommodation, Perceived Outgroup Typicality, and Patient Inclinations Toward Compliance,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 24, 2007, pp. 293-302.

Jason T. Mickel, Shian-Li McGuire, and Shelley Gross-Gray, “Grey's Anatomy and Communication Accommodation: Exploring Aspects of Nonverbal Interactions Portrayed in Media,” Interpersona, Vol. 7, 2013, pp. 138-149.

Marilize Pretorius, “Communication Accommodation Theory Analysis of Nurse–Patient Interaction: Implications for Course Design,” International Journal of Applied Linguistics28, 2018, pp. 71-85.

 

Interpersonal and family contexts

Colleen Warner Colaner, Jordan Soliz, and Leslie R. Nelson, “Communicatively Managing Religious Identity Difference in Parent-Child Relationships: The Role of Accommodative and Nonaccommodative Communication,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 14, 2014, pp. 310-327.

Sally D. Farley, Susan M. Hughes, and Jack N. LaFayette, “People Will Know We Are in Love: Evidence of Differences Between Vocal Samples Directed Toward Lovers and Friends,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol. 37, 2013, pp. 123-138.

Andy J. Merolla and Jennifer J. Harman, “Relationship-Specific Hope and Constructive Conflict Management in Adult Romantic Relationships: Testing an Accommodation Framework,” Communication Research, Vol. 45, 2018, pp. 339-364.

Allison M. Scott and John P. Caughlin, “Communication Nonaccommodation in Family Conversations About End-of-Life Health Decisions,” Health Communication, 30, 2015, pp. 144-153.

Rebecca B. Speer, Howard Giles, and Amanda Denes, “Investigating Stepparent-Stepchild Interactions: The Role of Communication Accommodation,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 13, 2013, pp. 218-241.

 

Online or digital contexts

Chris Fullwood, Lisa J. Orchard, and Sarah A. Floyd, “Emoticon Convergence in Internet Chat Rooms,” Social Semiotics, Vol. 23, 2013, pp. 648-662.

Kate Muir, Adam Joinson, Rachel Cotterill, and Nigel Dewdney, “Linguistic Style Accommodation Shapes Impression Formation and Rapport in Computer-Mediated Communication,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 36, 2017, pp. 525-548.

Joshua M. Parcha, “Accommodating Twitter: Communication Accommodation Theory and Classroom Interactions,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 229-235.

Monica A. Riordan, Kris M. Markman, and Craig O. Stewart, “Communication Accommodation in Instant Messaging: An Examination of Temporal Convergence,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 32, 2013, pp. 84-95.

Nadine Tamburrini, Marco Cinnirella, Vincent A. A. Jansen, and John Bryden, “Twitter Users Change Word Usage According to Conversation-Partner Social Identity,” Social Networks, Vol. 40, 2015, pp. 84-89.

 

Under- or nonaccommodation

Jessica Gasiorek, “‘I Was Impolite to Her Because That's How She Was to Me’: Perceptions of Motive and Young Adults' Communicative Responses to Underaccommodation,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 77, 2013, pp. 604-624.

Jessica Gasiorek and Marko Dragojevic, “The Effects of Accumulated Underaccommodation on Perceptions of Underaccommodative Communication and Speakers,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 43, 2017, pp. 276-294.

Jessica Gasiorek and Howard Giles, “The Role of Inferred Motive in Processing Nonaccommodation: Evaluations of Communication and Speakers,” Western Journal of Communication, Vol. 79, 2015, pp. 456-471.

Jessica Gasiorek, Kris Van de Poel, and Inge Blockmans, “What Do You Do When You Can't Accommodate? Managing and Evaluating Problematic Interactions in a Multilingual Medical Environment,” Language & Communication, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 84-88.

Howard Giles and Jessica Gasiorek, J. (2014). “Parameters of Nonaccommodation: Refining and Elaborating Communication Accommodation Theory,” in Social Cognition and Communication, Joseph P. Forgas, Orsolya Vincze, and János László, (eds.), Psychology Press, New York, 2014, pp. 155-172.

 

Other applications and contexts for CAT

Amanda Denes, Jessica Gasiorek, and Howard Giles, “‘Don’t Touch That Dial’: Accommodating Musical Preferences in Interpersonal Relationships,” Psychology of Music, Vol. 44, 2016, pp. 1193-1201.

Xing Fang, “When an Indian Speaks to a Chinese: Making Sense of World Englishes in the Framework of Communication Accommodation Theory,” Asian Englishes, Vol. 19, 2017, pp. 100-115.

Robert M. McCann and Howard Giles, “Communication With People of Different Ages in the Workplace: Thai and American Data,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 32, 2006, pp. 74-108.

Kate Muir, Adam Joinson, Rachel Cotterill, and Nigel Dewdney, “Characterizing the Linguistic Chameleon: Personal and Social Correlates of Linguistic Style Accommodation,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 462-484.

Jenny Nilsson, “Dialect Accommodation in Interaction: Explaining Dialect Change and Stability,” Language & Communication, Vol. 41, 2015, pp. 6-16.

Rob Thomson, “The Effect of Topic of Discussion on Gendered Language in Computer-Mediated Communication Discussion,” Journal of Language & Social Psychology, Vol. 25, 2006, pp. 167-178.

Chapter 35—Face-Negotiation Theory

Theoretical considerations

Courtney Vail Fletcher, Masato Nakazawa, Yea-Win Chen, John G. Oetzel, Stella Ting-Toomey, Shau-Ju Chang, and Qin Zhang, “Establishing Cross-Cultural Measurement Equivalence of Scales Associated with Face-Negotiation Theory: A Critical Issue in Cross-Cultural Comparisons,” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 7, 2014, pp. 148-169.

Mai Nguyen-Phuong-Mai, Cees Terlouw, and Albert Pilot, “Revisiting Facework with a New Analysis Instrument,” Journal of Intercultural Communication, Vol. 36, 2014.

Andy J. Merolla, “Further Testing Hope’s Role in Constructive Conflict Communication,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 65, 2017, pp. 481-501.

Stella Ting-Toomey, “Managing Identity Issues in Intercultural Conflict Communication: Developing a Multicultural Identity Attunement Lens,” in The Oxford Handbook of Multicultural Identity, Verónica Benet-Martínez and Ying-yi Hong (eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, 2014, pp. 485-506.

 

Interpersonal and family applications

Min Kyong Cho and Alan Sillars, “Face Threat and Facework Strategies When Family (Health) Secrets Are Revealed: A Comparison of South Korea and the United States,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2015, pp. 535-557.

Andy J. Merolla and Jennifer A. Kam, “Parental Hope Communication and Parent-Adolescent Constructive Conflict Management: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis,” Journal of Family Communication, Vol. 18, 2018, pp. 32-50.

James W. Neuliep and Morgan Johnson, “A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ecuadorian and United States Face, Facework, and Conflict Styles During Interpersonal conflict: An Application of Face-Negotiation Theory,” Journal of International & Intercultural Communication, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 1-19.

Laura A. Oramas, Dionne P. Stephens, and Melody Whiddon, “Influence of Parental Conflict Resolution Strategies on Hispanic College Women’s Experiences With Verbal Aggression,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 32, 2017, pp. 2908-2928.

Tiffany R. Tili and Gina G. Barker, “Communication in Intercultural Marriages: Managing Cultural Differences and Conflicts,” Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 80, 2015, pp. 189-210.

Qin Zhang, Stella Ting-Toomey, and John G. Oetzel, “Linking Emotion to the Conflict Face-Negotiation Theory: A U.S.-China Investigation of the Mediating Effects of Anger, Compassion, and Guilt in Interpersonal Conflict,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2014, pp. 373-395.

 

Workplace and organizational applications

Wonsun (Sunny) Kim, Anne M. Nicotera, and Julie McNulty, “Nurses' Perceptions of Conflict as Constructive or Destructive,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 71, 2015, pp. 2073-2083.

Yuping Mao and Claudia Hale, “Relating Intercultural Communication Sensitivity to Conflict Management Styles, Technology Use, and Organizational Communication Satisfaction in Multinational Organizations in China,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 44, 2015, pp. 132-150.

Erin M. Richard and Michael McFadden, “Saving Face: Reactions to Cultural Norm Violations in Business Request Emails,” Journal of Business & Psychology, Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 307-321.

 

Other applied Contexts

Hedy Greijdanus, Tom Postmes, Ernestine Gordijn, and Martijn van Zomeren, “Steeling Ourselves: Intragroup Communication While Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions,” PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, 2015, pp. 1-23.

Tao Lin, “The Concepts of ‘Politeness’: A Comparative Study in Chinese and Japanese Verbal Communication,” Intercultural Communication Studies, Vol. 22, 2013, pp. 151-165.

James W. Neuliep and Morgan Johnson, “Do U.S. and Ecuadorian Students Differ in Their Conflict Styles?,” Communication Currents, Vol. 11, 2016, pp. 1-2, available online at https://www.natcom.org/communication-currents/do-us-and-ecuadorian-students-differ-their-conflict-styles

Adrian Toomey, Tenzin Dorjee, and Stella Ting-Toomey, “Bicultural Identity Negotiation, Conflicts, and Intergroup Communication Strategies,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2013, pp. 112-134.

Svenja Wachsmuth, Sophia Jowett, Chris G. Harwood, “Conflict Among Athletes and Their Coaches: What is the Theory and Research So Far?,” International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Vol. 10, 2017, pp. 84-107.

 

Teaching ideas

Christina G. Yoshimura, C. G. “Teaching Communication and Conflict as a Game,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 31, 2017, pp. 231-238.

Chapter 36—Co-Cultural Theory

Theoretical considerations

Gina Castle Bell, Mark C. Hopson, Melinda R. Weathers, and Katy A. Ross, “From ‘Laying the Foundations’ to Building the House: Extending Orbe's (1998) Co-Cultural Theory to Include ‘Rationalization’ as a Formal Strategy,” Communication Studies, Vol. 66, 2014, pp. 1-26.

Sara DeTurk, “Allies in Action: The Communicative Experiences of People Who Challenge Social Injustice on Behalf of Others,” Communication Quarterly, Vol. 59, 2011, pp. 569-590.

Jesse Fox and Katie M. Warber, “Queer Identity Management and Political Self-Expression on Social Networking Sites: A Co-Cultural Approach to the Spiral of Silence,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, 2015, pp. 79-100.

Mark P. Orbe and Colin J. Batten, “Diverse Dominant Group Responses to Contemporary Co-Cultural Concerns: U.S. Intergroup Dynamics in the Trump Era,” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, Vol. 7, 2017, pp. 19-33.

Rona Tamiko Halualani, S. Lily Mendoza, and Jolanta A. Drzewiecka, “‘Critical’ Junctures in Intercultural Communication Studies: A Review,” Review of Communication, Vol. 9, 2009, pp. 17-35.

 

Applied contexts

Michael K. Ault and Bobbi Van Gilder, “Polygamy in the United States: How Marginalized Religious Communities Cope with Stigmatizing Discourses Surrounding Plural Marriage,” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, Vol. 44, 2015, pp. 307-328.

Bijie Bie and Lu Tang, “Chinese Gay Men’s Coming Out Narratives: Connecting Social Relationship to Co-Cultural Theory,” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 351-367.

Mark Congdon Jr., “What's Wrong with Me?: An Autoethnographic Investigation of the Co-Cultural Communicative Practices of Living with Tourette Syndrome during Adolescence,” Qualitative Report, Vol. 19, 2014, pp. 1-25.

Eun-Jeong Han and Paula Groves Price, “Communicating Across Difference: Co-Cultural Theory, Capital and Multicultural Families in Korea,” Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Vol. 11, 2017, pp. 21-41.

Phyllis Ngai, “The Impact of Teachers' Communication Approach on Children's Co-Cultural Adaptation,” Journal of Intercultural Communication, Vol. 37, 2015.

C. Kyle Rudick, Michael Sollitto, Christopher J. Claus, Amy Aldridge Sanford, Keith Nainby, and Kathryn B. Golsan, “Comparing Hispanic-To-White Co-Cultural Communication at Four-Year, Public Hispanic Serving and Predominately White Institutions,” Communication Reports, Vol. 30, 2017, pp. 104-115.

Karla D. Scott, “Communication Strategies Across Cultural Borders: Dispelling Stereotypes, Performing Competence, and Redefining Black Womanhood,” Women's Studies in Communication, Vol. 36, 2013, pp. 312-329.

Melinda R. Weathers and Mark C. Hopson, “‘I Define What Hurts Me’: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Digital Dating Abuse,” Howard Journal of Communications, Vol. 26, 2015, pp. 95-113.

 

Other teaching ideas

Elizabeth Root, “Staging Scenes of Co-Cultural Communication: Acting Out Aspects of Marginalized and Dominant Identities,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 32, 2018, pp. 13-18.

 

Chapter 37—Common Threads in Comm Theories

Integrative essays on communication theory include:

John Stewart, “Developing Communication Theories,” in Developing Communication Theories, Gerry Philipsen and Terrance L. Albrecht (eds.), State University of New York Press, Albany, 1997, pp. 157-92.

Branislav Kova?i? and Donald P. Cushman, “A Pluralistic View of the Emerging Theories of Human Communication,” in Emerging Theories of Human Communication, Branislav Kova?i?, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1997, pp. 170-87. 

 

Other texts which show a range of connections across the disciple:

Nancy Baym, Scott W. Campbell, Heather Horst, Sri Kalyanaraman, Mary Beth Oliver, Eric Rothenbuhler, René Weber, and Katherine Miller, “Communication Theory and Research in the Age of New Media: A Conversation from the CM Café,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 79, 2012, pp. 256-267.

Marianne Dainton, Elaine D. Zelley, Applying Communication Theory for Professional Life: A Practical Introduction, 4th ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2019.

Thomas Hanitzsch, “Celebrating 25 Years of Communication Theory: Growing Diversity Under Heavy Strain,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 349-355.

Yoshitaka Miike, “De-Westernizing Communication Theory and Research: An Asiacentric Bibliography,” China Media Research, Vol. 7, 2011, pp. 111-121.

Adrian Pablé, “Communication Theory and Integrational Semiology: The Constitutive Metamodel Revisited,” Empedocles: European Journal for The Philosophy of Communication, Vol. 8, 2017, pp. 55-67.

Brent D. Ruben, “Communication Theory and Health Communication Practice: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same,” Health Communication, Vol. 31, 2016, pp. 1-11.

Gregory J. Shepherd, Jeffrey St. John, and Ted Striphas (eds.), Communication as… Perspectives on Theory, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2006.

Bryan B. Whaley and Wendy Samter (eds.), Explaining Communication: Contemporary Theories and Exemplars, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2007.

Barbie Zelizer, “Making Communication Theory Matter,” Communication Theory, Vol. 25, 2015, pp. 410-415.



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