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Chapter 29—Cultivation Theory

Ellen Wartella takes up the issue of television violence in her 1996 Carroll Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “The Context of Television Violence,” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1997 (as of this writing, a copy is available at http://www1.udel.edu/comm245/readings/tvviolence.pdf) as does James T. Hamilton, Channeling Violence: The Economic Market for Violent Television Programming, Princeton University Press, 1998. 

Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research dedicated its September 2004 (Vol. 29, Issue 3, Jan Van den Bulck, ed.) special issue to then-current developments in cultivation research.

Theoretical considerations

Kimberly Gross and Sean Aday, “The Scary World in Your Living Room and Neighborhood: Using Local Broadcast News, Neighborhood Crime Rates, and Personal Experience to Test Agenda Setting and Cultivation,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 53, 2003, pp. 411-426.

Michael Morgan, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Yesterday's New Cultivation, Tomorrow,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 674-699.

Michael Morgan and James Shanahan, “The State of Cultivation,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 54, 2010, pp. 337-355.

Karyn Riddle, “Remembering Past Media Use: Toward the Development of a Lifetime Television Exposure Scale,” Communication Methods & Measures, Vol. 4, 2010, pp. 241-255.

Karyn Riddle, W. James Potter, Miriam J. Metzger, Robin L. Nabi, and Daniel G. Linz, “Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media,” Media Psychology, Vol. 14, 2011, pp. 168-191.

Anna Schnauber and Christine E. Meltzer, “On the Distinction and Interrelation Between First- and Second-Order Judgments in Cultivation Research,” Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2016, pp. 121-143.

 

Critiques and contrasting opinions of cultivation theory

Markus Appel, “Fictional Narratives Cultivate Just-World Beliefs,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 58, 2008, pp. 62-83.

Lennert Coenen and Jan Van den Bulck, “Cultivating the Opinionated: The Need to Evaluate Moderates the Relationship Between Crime Drama Viewing and Scary World Evaluations,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 421-440.

W. James Potter, “A Critical Analysis of Cultivation Theory,” Journal of Communication, 64, 2014, pp. 1015-1036.

 

Cultivation and news coverage

John W. Cheng, Hitoshi Mitomo, Tokio Otsuka, and Stefan Y. Jeon, “Cultivation Effects of Mass and Social Media on Perceptions and Behavioural Intentions in Post-Disaster Recovery – The Case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake,” Telematics & Informatics, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 753-772.

Zeeba Khan and Jon Bruschke, “Media Coverage of Muslims, Perceived Threats, Ethnocentrism, and Intercultural Contact: Applying Cultivation Theory, Integrated Threat Theory, and the Contact Hypothesis,” Northwest Journal of Communication, Vol. 44, 2016, pp. 7-34.

Sean Patrick Roche, Justin T. Pickett, and Marc Gertz, “The Scary World of Online News? Internet News Exposure and Public Attitudes Toward Crime and Justice,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Vol. 32, 2016, pp. 215-236.

 

Violence

John R. Chapin and Grace Coleman, “Optimistic Bias About Dating/Relationship Violence Among Teens,” Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 645-655.

Kathleen Custers and Jan Van den Bulck, “The Cultivation of Fear of Sexual Violence in Women: Processes and Moderators of the Relationship Between Television and Fear,” Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2013, pp. 96-124.

LeeAnn Kahlor and Matthew S. Eastin, “Television's Role in the Culture of Violence Toward Women: A Study of Television Viewing and the Cultivation of Rape Myth Acceptance in the United States,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 55, 2011, pp. 215-231.

 

Video Games

Yew Mun Gabriel Chong, Kie Zin Scott Teng, Sok Cheng Amy Siew, and Marko M. Skoric, “Cultivation Effects of Video Games: A Longer-Term Experimental Test of First- and Second-Order Effects,” Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol. 31, 2012, pp. 952-971.

Dmitri Williams, “Virtual Cultivation: Online Worlds, Offline Perceptions,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 56, 2006, pp. 69-87.

 

Sex and gender role cultivation

Dawn Elizabeth England, Lara Descartes, and Melissa A. Collier-Meek, “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses,” Sex Roles, Vol. 64, 2011, pp. 555-567.

Hilary Gamble and Leslie R. Nelson, “Sex in College Relationships: The Role Television Plays in Emerging Adults’ Sexual Expectations in Relationships,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 83, 2016, pp. 145-161.

Ashton Gerding and Nancy Signorielli, “Gender Roles in Tween Television Programming: A Content Analysis of Two Genres,” Sex Roles, Vol. 70, 2014, pp. 43-56.

Scott Parrott and Caroline Titcomb Parrott, “U.S. Television’s ‘Mean World’ for White Women: The Portrayal of Gender and Race on Fictional Crime Dramas,” Sex Roles, Vol. 73, 2015, pp. 70-82. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Is Reality TV a Bad Girls Club? Television Use, Docusoap Reality Television Viewing, and the Cultivation of the Approval of Aggression,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 95, 2018, pp. 235-257. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Cultivating Conceptions of Masculinity: Television and Perceptions of Masculine Gender Role Norms,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 21, 2018, pp. 149-177.

Kristen E. Van Vonderen and William Kinnally, “Media Effects on Body Image: Examining Media Exposure in the Broader Context of Internal and Other Social Factors,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 14, 2012, pp. 41-57.

  

Other applied contexts

Kathleen Beullens, Keith Roe, and Jan Van den Bulck, “Music Video Viewing as a Marker of Driving After the Consumption of Alcohol,” Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 47, 2012, pp. 155-165.

Bumsub Jin and Seongjung Jeong, “The Impact of Korean Television Drama Viewership on the Social Perceptions of Single Life and Having Fewer Children in Married Life,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 20, 2010, pp. 17-32.

Jae Eun Chung, “Medical Dramas and Viewer Perception of Health: Testing Cultivation Effects,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2014, pp. 333-349.

Jon Hammermeister, Barbara Brock, David Winterstein, and Randy Page, “Life Without TV? Cultivation Theory and Psychosocial Health Characteristics of Television-Free Individuals and Their Television-Viewing Counterparts,” Health Communication, Vol. 17, 2005, pp. 253-264.

Amir Hetsroni and Hila Lowenstein, “Cultivation and Counter Cultivation: Does Religiosity Shape the Relationship Between Television Viewing and Estimates of Crime Prevalence and Assessment of Victimization Likelihood?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 112, 2013, pp. 303-324.

Amir Hetsroni, Abira Reizer, and Uri Ben Zion, “Interest Rate Demands and Television Viewing--Is a Single Exposure More Influential Than Routine Viewing?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 120, 2017, pp. 332-360.

Mina Tsay-Vogel, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Social Media Cultivating Perceptions of Privacy: A 5-Year Analysis of Privacy Attitudes and Self-Disclosure Behaviors Among Facebook Users,” New Media & Society, Vol. 20, 2018, pp. 141-161.

 

Teaching ideas

Elizabeth Ribarsky, “The Frankenstein Project: Examining Media's Role in Constructing Romantic Relationship Ideals,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 160-164.



You can access Further Resouces for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

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Instructors can get
additional resources.
Read more

New to Theory
Resources?

Find out more
in this short
video overview
(3:01).

Further Resources
10th Edition
CHANGE TO
View by Theory

Scholarly and artistic references from the Instructors Manual and addition to the website


List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details | Clear details

Chapter 29—Cultivation Theory

Ellen Wartella takes up the issue of television violence in her 1996 Carroll Arnold Distinguished Lecture, “The Context of Television Violence,” Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1997 (as of this writing, a copy is available at http://www1.udel.edu/comm245/readings/tvviolence.pdf) as does James T. Hamilton, Channeling Violence: The Economic Market for Violent Television Programming, Princeton University Press, 1998. 

Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research dedicated its September 2004 (Vol. 29, Issue 3, Jan Van den Bulck, ed.) special issue to then-current developments in cultivation research.

Theoretical considerations

Kimberly Gross and Sean Aday, “The Scary World in Your Living Room and Neighborhood: Using Local Broadcast News, Neighborhood Crime Rates, and Personal Experience to Test Agenda Setting and Cultivation,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 53, 2003, pp. 411-426.

Michael Morgan, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Yesterday's New Cultivation, Tomorrow,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 18, 2015, pp. 674-699.

Michael Morgan and James Shanahan, “The State of Cultivation,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 54, 2010, pp. 337-355.

Karyn Riddle, “Remembering Past Media Use: Toward the Development of a Lifetime Television Exposure Scale,” Communication Methods & Measures, Vol. 4, 2010, pp. 241-255.

Karyn Riddle, W. James Potter, Miriam J. Metzger, Robin L. Nabi, and Daniel G. Linz, “Beyond Cultivation: Exploring the Effects of Frequency, Recency, and Vivid Autobiographical Memories for Violent Media,” Media Psychology, Vol. 14, 2011, pp. 168-191.

Anna Schnauber and Christine E. Meltzer, “On the Distinction and Interrelation Between First- and Second-Order Judgments in Cultivation Research,” Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, Vol. 41, 2016, pp. 121-143.

 

Critiques and contrasting opinions of cultivation theory

Markus Appel, “Fictional Narratives Cultivate Just-World Beliefs,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 58, 2008, pp. 62-83.

Lennert Coenen and Jan Van den Bulck, “Cultivating the Opinionated: The Need to Evaluate Moderates the Relationship Between Crime Drama Viewing and Scary World Evaluations,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, 2016, pp. 421-440.

W. James Potter, “A Critical Analysis of Cultivation Theory,” Journal of Communication, 64, 2014, pp. 1015-1036.

 

Cultivation and news coverage

John W. Cheng, Hitoshi Mitomo, Tokio Otsuka, and Stefan Y. Jeon, “Cultivation Effects of Mass and Social Media on Perceptions and Behavioural Intentions in Post-Disaster Recovery – The Case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake,” Telematics & Informatics, Vol. 33, 2016, pp. 753-772.

Zeeba Khan and Jon Bruschke, “Media Coverage of Muslims, Perceived Threats, Ethnocentrism, and Intercultural Contact: Applying Cultivation Theory, Integrated Threat Theory, and the Contact Hypothesis,” Northwest Journal of Communication, Vol. 44, 2016, pp. 7-34.

Sean Patrick Roche, Justin T. Pickett, and Marc Gertz, “The Scary World of Online News? Internet News Exposure and Public Attitudes Toward Crime and Justice,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Vol. 32, 2016, pp. 215-236.

 

Violence

John R. Chapin and Grace Coleman, “Optimistic Bias About Dating/Relationship Violence Among Teens,” Journal of Youth Studies, Vol. 15, 2012, pp. 645-655.

Kathleen Custers and Jan Van den Bulck, “The Cultivation of Fear of Sexual Violence in Women: Processes and Moderators of the Relationship Between Television and Fear,” Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2013, pp. 96-124.

LeeAnn Kahlor and Matthew S. Eastin, “Television's Role in the Culture of Violence Toward Women: A Study of Television Viewing and the Cultivation of Rape Myth Acceptance in the United States,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 55, 2011, pp. 215-231.

 

Video Games

Yew Mun Gabriel Chong, Kie Zin Scott Teng, Sok Cheng Amy Siew, and Marko M. Skoric, “Cultivation Effects of Video Games: A Longer-Term Experimental Test of First- and Second-Order Effects,” Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol. 31, 2012, pp. 952-971.

Dmitri Williams, “Virtual Cultivation: Online Worlds, Offline Perceptions,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 56, 2006, pp. 69-87.

 

Sex and gender role cultivation

Dawn Elizabeth England, Lara Descartes, and Melissa A. Collier-Meek, “Gender Role Portrayal and the Disney Princesses,” Sex Roles, Vol. 64, 2011, pp. 555-567.

Hilary Gamble and Leslie R. Nelson, “Sex in College Relationships: The Role Television Plays in Emerging Adults’ Sexual Expectations in Relationships,” Communication Monographs, Vol. 83, 2016, pp. 145-161.

Ashton Gerding and Nancy Signorielli, “Gender Roles in Tween Television Programming: A Content Analysis of Two Genres,” Sex Roles, Vol. 70, 2014, pp. 43-56.

Scott Parrott and Caroline Titcomb Parrott, “U.S. Television’s ‘Mean World’ for White Women: The Portrayal of Gender and Race on Fictional Crime Dramas,” Sex Roles, Vol. 73, 2015, pp. 70-82. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Is Reality TV a Bad Girls Club? Television Use, Docusoap Reality Television Viewing, and the Cultivation of the Approval of Aggression,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 95, 2018, pp. 235-257. Erica Scharrer and Greg Blackburn, “Cultivating Conceptions of Masculinity: Television and Perceptions of Masculine Gender Role Norms,” Mass Communication & Society, Vol. 21, 2018, pp. 149-177.

Kristen E. Van Vonderen and William Kinnally, “Media Effects on Body Image: Examining Media Exposure in the Broader Context of Internal and Other Social Factors,” American Communication Journal, Vol. 14, 2012, pp. 41-57.

  

Other applied contexts

Kathleen Beullens, Keith Roe, and Jan Van den Bulck, “Music Video Viewing as a Marker of Driving After the Consumption of Alcohol,” Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 47, 2012, pp. 155-165.

Bumsub Jin and Seongjung Jeong, “The Impact of Korean Television Drama Viewership on the Social Perceptions of Single Life and Having Fewer Children in Married Life,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 20, 2010, pp. 17-32.

Jae Eun Chung, “Medical Dramas and Viewer Perception of Health: Testing Cultivation Effects,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 40, 2014, pp. 333-349.

Jon Hammermeister, Barbara Brock, David Winterstein, and Randy Page, “Life Without TV? Cultivation Theory and Psychosocial Health Characteristics of Television-Free Individuals and Their Television-Viewing Counterparts,” Health Communication, Vol. 17, 2005, pp. 253-264.

Amir Hetsroni and Hila Lowenstein, “Cultivation and Counter Cultivation: Does Religiosity Shape the Relationship Between Television Viewing and Estimates of Crime Prevalence and Assessment of Victimization Likelihood?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 112, 2013, pp. 303-324.

Amir Hetsroni, Abira Reizer, and Uri Ben Zion, “Interest Rate Demands and Television Viewing--Is a Single Exposure More Influential Than Routine Viewing?,” Psychological Reports, Vol. 120, 2017, pp. 332-360.

Mina Tsay-Vogel, James Shanahan, and Nancy Signorielli, “Social Media Cultivating Perceptions of Privacy: A 5-Year Analysis of Privacy Attitudes and Self-Disclosure Behaviors Among Facebook Users,” New Media & Society, Vol. 20, 2018, pp. 141-161.

 

Teaching ideas

Elizabeth Ribarsky, “The Frankenstein Project: Examining Media's Role in Constructing Romantic Relationship Ideals,” Communication Teacher, Vol. 28, 2014, pp. 160-164.



You can access Further Resouces for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

Back to top



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