Theory Key Names
Annotated list of scholars and terms, from the Instructors Manual and margin notes in the text
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Chapter 35—Face-Negotiation Theory
- Stella Ting-Toomey
- California State University, Fullerton professor who created face-negotiation theory.
- The projected image of one’s self in a relational situation
- Specific verbal and nonverbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss, and to uphold and honor face gain.
- Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson
- Cambridge University linguists who define face as the public self-image that every member of society wants to claim for himself/herself.
- Harry Triandis
- University of Illinois psychologist who distinguishes between collectivism and individualism.
- Lin Yutang
- Taiwanese scholar who calls face a psychological image that can be granted and lost, and fought for and presented as a gift.
- Individualistic culture
- Wherein people look out for themselves and their immediate families; I-identity; a low-context culture.
- Collectivistic Culture
- Wherein people identify with a larger group that is responsible for providing care in exchange for group loyalty; we-identity; a high-context culture.
- Regard for self-face, other face, or mutual face.
- The self-concerned facework strategy used to preserve autonomy and defend against loss of personal freedom.
- The other-concerned facework strategy used to defend and support another person’s need for inclusion.
- Responding to conflict by withdrawing from open discussion.
- Accommodating or giving into the wishes of the other in a conflict situation.
- Conflict management by negotiation or bargaining; seeking a middle way.
- Competing to win when people’s interests conflict.
- Problem solving through open discussion; collaboration; a win-win resolution of conflict.
- Self-image; the degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to, others.
- A recognition that things are not always what they seem, and therefore seeking multiple perspectives in conflict situations.
- John Oetzel
- A researcher from the University of Waikato in New Zealand who has worked with Ting-Toomey to test, critique, and expand face-negotiation theory.
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