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Theory Resources

DEEPEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE THEORIES IN THE 10TH EDITION

 

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New to Theory Resources?
Find out more in this
short video overview (3:01).

Theory Key Names
10th Edition
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Annotated list of scholars and terms, from the Instructors Manual and margin notes in the text


List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details | Clear details

Chapter  9—Uncertainty Reduction Theory

  • Charles Berger
    • A communication theorist at the University of California, Davis, who developed uncertainty reduction theory.
  • Fritz Heider
    • As the founder of attribution theory, this psychologist argued that we constantly draw inferences about why people do what they do.
  • Attribution theory
    • A systematic explanation of how people draw inferences about the character of others based on observed behavior.
  • Uncertainty reduction
    • Increased knowledge of what kind of person another is that provides an improved forecast of how a future interaction will turn out.
  • Axiom
    • A self-evident truth that requires no additional proof.
  • Malcolm Parks and Mara Adelman
    • Communication researchers from University of Washington and Seattle University, respectively, who have demonstrated that there is a relationship between shared communication networks and uncertainty reduction.
  • Theorem
    • A proposition that logically and necessarily follows from two axioms.
  • Message plans
    • Mental representations of action sequences that may be used to achieve goals.
  • Passive strategy
    • Impression formation by observing a person interact with others.
  • Active strategy
    • Impression formation by asking a third party about a person.
  • Interactive strategy
    • Impression formation through face-to-face discussion with a person.
  • Extractive strategy
    • Impression formation by searching the Internet for information about a person.
  • Plan complexity
    • A characteristic of message plan based on the level of detail it provides and the number of contingencies it covers.
  • Hedging
    • Use of strategic ambiguity and humor to provide a way for both parties to save face when a message fails to achieve its goals.
  • Hierarchy hypothesis
    • The prediction that when people are thwarted in their attempts to achieve goals, their first tendency is to alter lower-level elements of their message.
  • Leanne Knobloch
    • Communication scholar at the University of Illinois who explores uncertainty in ongoing relationships and the resulting relational turbulence.
  • Relational uncertainty
    • Doubts about our own thoughts, the thoughts of the other person, or the future of the relationship.
  • Partner interference
    • Occurs when a relational partner hinders goals, plans, and activities.
  • Relational turbulence
    • Negative emotions arising from perceived problems in a close relationship.
  • Kathy Kellermann and Rodney Reynolds
    • Communication scholars who have questioned the motivational assumption of Berger's axiom 3 and the claim that motivation to search for information is increased by anticipation of future interaction, incentive value, and deviance.
  • Michael Sunnafrank
    • A communication scholar from the University of Minnesota, Duluth, who believes that predicted outcome value more accurately explains communication in early encounters than does Berger's account of uncertainty reduction.
  • Predicted outcome value
    • A forecast of future benefits and costs of interaction based on limited experience with the other.
  • Walid Afifi
    • A communication scholar from the University of California at Santa Barbara who proposed the theory of motivated information management.

You can access the Key Names for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

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Resources
by Type





 KEY NAMES

 VIDEOS


 ESSAY


 LINKS





Instructors can get
additional resources.
Read more

New to Theory
Resources?

Find out more
in this short
video overview
(3:01).

Theory Key Names
10th Edition
CHANGE TO
View by Theory

Annotated list of scholars and terms, from the Instructors Manual and margin notes in the text


List mode: Normal (click on theory name to show detail) | Show All details | Clear details

Chapter  9—Uncertainty Reduction Theory

  • Charles Berger
    • A communication theorist at the University of California, Davis, who developed uncertainty reduction theory.
  • Fritz Heider
    • As the founder of attribution theory, this psychologist argued that we constantly draw inferences about why people do what they do.
  • Attribution theory
    • A systematic explanation of how people draw inferences about the character of others based on observed behavior.
  • Uncertainty reduction
    • Increased knowledge of what kind of person another is that provides an improved forecast of how a future interaction will turn out.
  • Axiom
    • A self-evident truth that requires no additional proof.
  • Malcolm Parks and Mara Adelman
    • Communication researchers from University of Washington and Seattle University, respectively, who have demonstrated that there is a relationship between shared communication networks and uncertainty reduction.
  • Theorem
    • A proposition that logically and necessarily follows from two axioms.
  • Message plans
    • Mental representations of action sequences that may be used to achieve goals.
  • Passive strategy
    • Impression formation by observing a person interact with others.
  • Active strategy
    • Impression formation by asking a third party about a person.
  • Interactive strategy
    • Impression formation through face-to-face discussion with a person.
  • Extractive strategy
    • Impression formation by searching the Internet for information about a person.
  • Plan complexity
    • A characteristic of message plan based on the level of detail it provides and the number of contingencies it covers.
  • Hedging
    • Use of strategic ambiguity and humor to provide a way for both parties to save face when a message fails to achieve its goals.
  • Hierarchy hypothesis
    • The prediction that when people are thwarted in their attempts to achieve goals, their first tendency is to alter lower-level elements of their message.
  • Leanne Knobloch
    • Communication scholar at the University of Illinois who explores uncertainty in ongoing relationships and the resulting relational turbulence.
  • Relational uncertainty
    • Doubts about our own thoughts, the thoughts of the other person, or the future of the relationship.
  • Partner interference
    • Occurs when a relational partner hinders goals, plans, and activities.
  • Relational turbulence
    • Negative emotions arising from perceived problems in a close relationship.
  • Kathy Kellermann and Rodney Reynolds
    • Communication scholars who have questioned the motivational assumption of Berger's axiom 3 and the claim that motivation to search for information is increased by anticipation of future interaction, incentive value, and deviance.
  • Michael Sunnafrank
    • A communication scholar from the University of Minnesota, Duluth, who believes that predicted outcome value more accurately explains communication in early encounters than does Berger's account of uncertainty reduction.
  • Predicted outcome value
    • A forecast of future benefits and costs of interaction based on limited experience with the other.
  • Walid Afifi
    • A communication scholar from the University of California at Santa Barbara who proposed the theory of motivated information management.

You can access the Key Names for a particular chapter in several ways:

  • Switch to View by Theory, then select the desired theory/chapter from the drop-down list at the top of the page. Look in the list of available resources.
  • To quickly find a theory by chapter number, use the Table of Contents and link from there. It will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.
  • You can also use the Theory List, which will take you directly to the theory with available options highlighted.

Back to top



The screen on this device is not wide enough to display Theory Resources. Try rotating the device to landscape orientation to see if more options become available.
Resources available to all users:

  • Theory Overview—abstract of each chapter
  • Self-Help Quizzes—for student preparation
  • Chapter Outlines
  • Key Names—important names and terms in each chapter
  • Conversation Videos—interviews with theorists
  • Application Logs—student application of theories
  • Essay Questions—for student prepatation
  • Suggested Movie Clips—tie-in movie scenese to theories
  • Links—web resources related to each chapter
  • Primary Sources—for each theory with full chapter coverage
  • Further Resources—bibliographic and other suggestions
  • Changes—for each theory, since the previous edition
  • Theory Archive—PDF copies from the last edition in which a theory appeared

Resources available only to registered instructors who are logged in:

  • Discussion Suggestions
  • Exercises & Activities
  • PowerPoint® presentations you can use
  • Short Answer Quizzes—suggested questions and answers
  • Compare Texts—comparison of theories covered in A First Look and ten other textbooks

Information for Instructors. Read more


 

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